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Flashcards in CH4 voc Deck (36):
1

chem formula for monosacchride

(CH2OH)n

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monosacchrides

have one molecule
fructose
glucose
galactose
ribose

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Glucose

most abundant carb
prod. by plants through photosynthesis

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disaccharides

lactose
maltose
sucrose

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lactose

Dissachride
glucose and galactose

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Maltose

disaccharide
glucose and glucose

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sucrose

Disaccharide
glucose and fructose

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carb absorption in villi

Additional enzymes digest disac to mono
mono- absorbed into mucosa cells lining the small intestine then to bloodstream then to liver

9

carb absorption and release

Bdown fructose and galactose to glucose
if needed immediately for energy- glucose released to blood stream

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carb storage

if glucose not needed it is stored as glycogen in liver and muscles

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ratio of CHO in carb

CH2O

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glucose role in cell

red blood cells
only use glucose for energy
used to maintain blood glucose

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Insulin resistacnce

cell becomes less responsive to insulin
-When too much glucose inside cell- cell gets removs insulin receptors
cells stop making receptors preventing glucose into cell and causing hyperglycemia

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Glycemic index

# associated with with particular type of food
that indicates the food's effect on a persons blood glucose.

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Glycemic index

# ranges from 50-100
100 pure glucose

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High glycemic food

70+ stop try to avoid
soda, jelly beans
wheat potato, baked potato
onions
watermelon

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Moderate glycemic food

55-69 use with caution
popcorn, energy bar
rice, pancakes
beets
banana, pineapple

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Low glycemic food

0-54 ideal to consume
pizza, pound cake
sweet potato, bagel
broccoli, carrots
cherries, oranges
yogurt custard

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GRAS

Generally recognized safe
set by FDA
any added substance substance in food

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fuel use by light exercise

87.5% fat
12.5 % carbs

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Fuel use moderate exercise

45% carbs
55% fat

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fuel used by intense exercise

67% carbs
33% fat

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RDA for carbs

130 grams

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AMDR for carbs

45-65 % diet

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simple carbs

sugars
have one or two molecules

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Simple carbs lead to

tooth decay
Increase bad cholesterol
decrease good cholesterol
obesity and diabetes

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amylose

Straight chain of glucose

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Amylopectin

Branched chain of glucose
raises blood glucose faster the amylose

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glycemic load

Is a GI weighted measure of carb content

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Condensation RXN

chem reaction in which 2 or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule

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Hydrolysis

break down of chem compound into two simpler compounds by the addition of water

32

Gluconeogenisis

Occurs when diet does not provide enough carbs.
body will make glucose from breakdown of body protns
AA cannot make new cells repair tissue
support imune system

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Gluconeogenisis causes

serious damage to heart liver kidneys

34

ketosis

Alternate fuel source for brain
Bdown of stored fat during fasting
due to low carb intake

35

Ketosis causes

ketoacidosis
increase blood acidity
enough energy form carbs prevents ketone prod

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Insulin resistance

cell doesn't have enough insulin receptors because cells have been saturated with glucose