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Flashcards in Ch5 Deck (154):
1

When a visual image has a taste
This bizarre condition may be bc 2 brain areas that shouldn't be ? are somehow ?, and so a specific area in the brain has adopted another area's role.

Synesthesia



connected twice

2

Creative people experience a higher ? of ? than noncreative people

incidence


synesthesia

3

The detection of physical stimuli and transmission of that information to the brain. It's the detection.

Sensation

4

The brain's further processing and organization and interpretation of sensory informtion. It is the construction of useful infor.

Perception

5

1. Stimulus: A green light emits ? properties in the form of ?.


2. Sensation: Sensory receptors in the driver's eyes detect this ?.


3. Sensory Coding: The stimulus is ? (translated into ? and ? ? that are transmitted to the brain.)


4. Perception: The driver's brain processes the ? signals and constructs a ? of the green light to continue driving.

physical


photons


stimulus


transduced

Chem & electrical signals




neural


representation

6

? guides sensation and perception

experience

7

The physical features of the stimulus.
ex: as each sensory aspect of a stimulus is processed

Bottom-up processing

8

How knowledge, expectations, or past experiences shape the interpretation of sensory information.

ex: what we expect to see experiences what we perceive. ex: proof reading and the ability that we attain for reading things that are nonsensical

Top-down processing

9

Our sensory systems translate the physical properties of stimuli into patterns of neural impulses. What is this called?

sensory coding

10

the translation of stimuli is called?

transduction

11

sense Vision
Stimli- ? waves
Receptors- light: sensitives rods and cones in the retina of eye
pathways to the brain- ??

Vision


Light


optic nerve

12

sense Hearing
Stimli- ? waves
Receptors- pressure: sensitive hair cells in cochlea of inner ear
pathways to the brain-??





sound


auditory nerve

13

sense taste
Stimli- ? dissolve on tongue
Receptors- cells in taste buds
pathways to the brain-??? (face)



molecules



Glossopharyngeal/vagus nerves

14

sense smell
Stimli- molecules dissolve on membranes in ?
Receptors-sensitive ends of ??(mucous nerves)
pathways to the brain-??




nose


olfactory nerve same

15

Which sense?
Stimli-pressure on the skin
Receptors-sensitive ends of touch neurons in skin
pathways to the brain- cranial nerves for touch above the neck, spinal nerves for tough elsewhere

Touch

16

vision, hearing and touch are all ?

physical stimulations

17

Taste and smell

chemical stimulation

18

To be effective the brain needs both? and? information.

The first kind is: consists of the most basic qualities of a stimulus.
2nd: consists of the degree, or magnitude, of those qualities; the loudness of the honk, the softness of the toot, the relative saltiness or sweetness.
ex: here stimuli are coded at a higher/faster rate




qualitative




quantitative

19

developed by weber and fechner which examines our psychological experiences of physical stimuli

psychophysics

20

The minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before you experience a sensation
ex: the quietest whisper you could hear

absolute threshold

21

sometimes called a just noticeable difference, is the smallest difference between 2 stimuli that you can notice. The minimum change to happen for a person to detect it.

difference threshold

22

the just noticeable difference between two stimuli based on the proportion of the original stimulus rather than on a fixed amount of difference

Weber's Law

23

Moods, emotions, memory, physical states: nausea

Internal Stimuli

24

Loud noises such as baby crying, or cold wind, a cluttered room

External Stimuli

25

States that detecting a stimulus is not an objective process. Instead subjective with two components.
1. sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of ? from other stimuli
2. the criteria used to make the judgement from ? information

SDT signal detection theory


distractions





ambiguous

26

Any research study on ? ? involves a series of trials in which a stimulus is presented in only some trials and the participant judges whether it occurred or not.

If the participant gets it right then it is a ? if they get it wrong then it's ?

signal detection






hit

fatal alarm

27

Tendency to report detecting the signal in an ambiguous trial

Response bias

28

A decreased sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation. It also occurs when sensory receptors stop responding to unchanging stimuli.

sensory adaptation

29

the process by which sensory stimuli are translated into signals the brain can interpret

transduction

30

? occurs at sensory receptors, specialized cells in each sense organ. Sensory receptors send messages to the ?, which sends projection to cortical areas for ??.

Transduction

thalamus

perceptual processing

31

The brain ? diverse neural inputs to produce stable representation

integrates

32

Transduction is the process of converting sensory stimuli into ??

neural activity

33

Sensory receptor in the eye transmit visual info to the ?

brain

34

Light first passes through the ? (the eyes thick transparent layer) then light is bent farther inward to form an image in the ? (? inner surface of the back of the eyeball). The retina contains ?? that transduce light into neural signals.

cornea


retina


thin


sensory receptors

35

The ? is the dark circle at the center of the eye. It is the opening front of the lens. By contracting and dilating it determines how much light enters the eye. The ? is a circular muscle that determines the eye's color and controls the pupil's size.

Pupil






Iris

36

The retina has two type of receptors what are they?

? respond at low levels of light and are responsible primarily for night vision. Don't support color vision.

less sensitive to low levels of light, are responsible for vision under bright conditions and for seeing color and detail.

rods and cones



rods




cones

37

Each retina holds up to 120 mill ? and 6 mill ?.

rods cones

38

Cones are densely packed in a small region called the ? near the retina's center

fovea

39

Sensory receptors in the retina contain ? which are protein molecules that become ? and split

photopigments


unstable

40

The 1st neurons in the visual pathway with axons. They are also the 1st neurons to generate action potentials

ganglion cells

41

The lower ?? for perception and recognition of objects. The upper ?? for spatial perception determining where an object is and relating it to other objects in a scene.

These two processing streams are known as ???

ventral stream



dorsal stream




"what" and "when".

42

How we see.
1. ??: light waves reflect from an image passes through cornea and enters the eyes through the pupil. The lens focuses the light on the retina.
2. ?: sensory receptors in the retina, called rods and cones, detect the light waves.
3. ?: rods and cones convert light into signals. Those signals are processed by ganglion cells generate action potentials which are sent to the brain by the optic nerve.
4. ?: signals from each visual field are processed on one side of each retina. They travel along the optic nerve and through the thalamus, and they are processed in the visual cortex that is opposite the visual field.


Physical stimulus






Sensation






Transduction




Perception

43

A condition dealing with the inability to recognize objects. In this condition your ? pathway is impaired.

Object agnosia



"what"

44

The color of light is determined by its ?

wavelength

45

According to the ?? color vision results from activity in 3 diff. types of cones.

1. "S" Shorter wave range from blue to violet.
2. "M" Medium-length waves range from yellow to green.
3. "L" Longer waves from red to orange.

trichromatic theory




blue to violet.




yellow to green.





red to orange.

46

Thee are 2 kinds of color blindness.
a. you missing photopigment sensitive to either ? or long wavelengths.
2nd where you are missing the ? wavelength.

medium





short

47

When we are receiving an entire range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum we see ??

white light

48

Perceiving objects requires organization of ??.

visual information

49

the closer two figures are to each other the more likely we are to group them and see them as part of the same object

proximity

50

we tend to group figures according to how closely they resemble each other whether in shape, color, or orientation.

similarity

51

the closer two figures are to each other the more likely we are to group them and see them as part of the same object (closeness)

proximity

52

we tend to group figures according to how closely they resemble each other whether in shape, color, or orientation. (resemblance)

similarity

53

We tend to group together edges or contours that have the same orientation known as "good continuation" to Gestalt Psychologists.
Ex: it a appears to play a role in completing an object behind an occluder (object in front)

continuity

54

We tend to complete figures that have gaps

closure

55

we sometimes perceive contours and cues to depth even though they don't exist

Illusory contours

56

The visual perception system's most basic organizing principles of distinguishing between ???.
Ex: a reversible figure illusion: here the brain periodically reverses to make sense of the stimulation showing how ? and ? visual perception is.

figure and ground






dynamic ongoing

57

Cultural differences:
? focus on a scene holistically, therefor they are influenced by the background of a figure. whereas ? focus on single elements in the forefront therefor they are to extract the figure from its background.

Easterners



westerners

58

When you see a spotted dog and the background is also similarly spotted it is difficult to not decipher it from its background the second time you see the image. What is this called?

inform shape processing

59

some people have deficits in the ability to recognize faces this disability is known as?

prosopagnosia

60

The process of recognizing/perceiving faces is a part of the ? stream. Some scientist suggest that a region called ?? in the right hemisphere may be specialized for perceiving faces and it responds more strongly to upright positioned faces.

"What"




fusiform gyrus

61

When looking at ? (upside down) faces it is difficult to quickly depict changes in the flip of eyes and/or mouth as in the ex with mila kunis.

inverted

62

People are more quickly to accurately recognize ???.
More people recognize ? on a man's face than a woman's and the reverse was found for ?. This all depicts how the brain is ? to gender roles and how men commit the most violent crimes.

angry faces than happy faces

anger


happiness


adaptive

63

?? is important for locating objects

depth perception

64

There are cues that help the visual system perceive depth.
1. are available fro m both eyes together and contribute to bottom up processing. This is also known as the ??
2. are available from each eye alone and provide organizational information for top-down processing.

1. binocular depth cues


retinal disparity



2. monocular depth cues

65

An object's depth based on that objects' 2 retinal image projections to each eye is called ??

stereoscopic vision

66

Refers to how the eye muscles turn the eyes inward when we view nearby objects. This is a ? depth cue.
The brain knows the eys are converging and uses this information to perceive ?.

Convergence


binocular
'


distance

67

We can perceive depth with one eye closed bc of ? depth
? depth cues are also called ? depth cues bc artist used this sense to create art.

monocular
monocular

pictorial

68

Da Vinci first identified many cases of these cues.
1. ?: a near object occludes(blocks) an object that is farther away.
ex: woman's head is blocking the building
2. ??: far off objects project a smaller retinal image than close objects do if both the far and close objects are the same size.
ex: bc the men in the back corner projects a smaller retinal image than the one crossing
3. ??: bc we know how large familiar objects are we can tell how far away they are by the size of their retinal images.
ex: since our knowledge of car sizes tells u how far the car is by its retinal image
4. ??: seemingly parallel lines appear to converge in the distance.
ex: bc the lines of the sidewalk appear converge in the distance

Occlusion





Relative size






Familiar size








Linear perspective

69

Eye muscles ? when an object approaches and moves closer. Eyes aim out in ?? when viewing a nearby object.

converge


parallel line

70

Asa uniformly textured surface retreats (moves back) its texture becomes blurred.

texture gradient

71

Objects below horizon- which appear ? in the visual field are perceived as farther away. Objects ? the horizon-which appear ? in the visual field are perceived ? away

higher



above



lower



farther

72

size perception depends on ?

distance

73

It played with depth cues to create size illusions. For ex: he made a diagonally cut room appear rectangular by using the cooked windows and floor tiles. This was by ??.

The Ames Box





Adelbert Ames

74

The two horizontal lines appear to be diff sizes but they are actually same length.

The ponzo illusion

75

Motion perception has both ????

internal and external cues.

76

Occurs when you gaze at ta moving image for a long time and then look at a stationary scene. You experience a momentary impression hat the new scene is moving in the opposite direction from the moving one.

This is a strong evidence that ?? exists in the brain.

Motion aftereffects









sensitive neurons

77

If you stare at a waterfall and then turn away the scenery you are now looking at will seem to move upward for a moment.
When you stare at something in motion long enough direction specific neurons begin to adapt to the motion. Bc they become fatigued and therefor ??

Waterfall effect








less sensitive

78

A way movies are made. It's a perceptual illusion that occurs when two or more slightly diff images are presented in rapid succession.

stroboscopic movement

79

? occur when the brain creates inaccurate representation of stimuli.
The brain correctly perceives objects as constant despite sensory data that could lead it to think otherwise.

Illusions


object constancy

80

For ?? we need to know how far the object is from us

we need to know what angle or angles we are seeing the object from

we need to compare the wavelengths of light reflected from the object with those reflected from its background

we need to know how much light is being reflected from the object and from its background

size constancy



shape constancy



color constancy




lightness constancy

81

The visual system is a complex interplay of.

constancies

82

? is the most Important sense bc it provides the most info about the world.

Vision

83

When light enters the eye and activate the photoreceptors (rods/cones)

Visual transduction

84

Permit night vision

Rods

85

Permit color vision and acuity

Cones

86

The ?? contains 3 types of cones; each responds best to one wavelength of light: ???

human retina




long, medium, or short.

87

?? explains how just 3 types of cones account for all of the colors we see. ?? explains why we experience negative afterimages.

Trichromatic theory


Opponent-process theory

88

?? of perceptual organization describe innate brain processes that put info into organized wholes.

Gestalt principles

89

Binocular and monocular depth cues permit the perception of depth from a ?? retinal image.

2 dimensional

90

light through the eye to the ? - ? -lens - ? -

cornea

pupil

retina

91

Relative size is a ?

Monocular cue

92

retinal disparity is a ?

Binocular cue

93

Occlusion is a ?

Binocular cue

94

Convergence is a ?

Binocular cue

95

Testure gradient is a ?

Monocular cue

96

Position relative to the horizon is a ?

Monocular cue

97

Hearing or ? is a 2nd to source of info about the world

audition

98

Hearing music results from differences in ??, not from differentiated ??.

brain activity

sound waves

99

Audition results from changes in ??

Air pressure `

100

The pattern of the changes in air pressure during a period of time is called a ??

Sound wave

101

A wave's amplitude determines its ?. A wave's frequency determines its ?.

loudness

pitch

102

The frequency of a sound is measured in vibrations per second called? Like all other sensory experiences the sensory of hearing occurs within the ?

hERTZ



brain

103

Sound localization the receptors cannot code where events occur instead the brain ? diff sensory info coming from ??.

integrates



each ear

104

The vestibular sys allows us to maintain ? when it receives signals from the ? canals in the inner ear.

balance

semicircular

105

?? assist the hearing impaired. Unlike a hearing aid it does not amplify sound.

Cochlear implants

106

Many def people consider the cochlear implants as a result of prejudice and discrimination against them. This is known as...

audism

107

Sound waves travel through the
1. ?
2. ?
3. ??
4. Cochlea

Ossicles


Eardrum


Oval window

108

Temporal coding is how hair cells ? low frequency sounds

encode

109

Place coding is how hair cells encode ??sounds.

high frequency

110

The frequency of a sound determine its ?

PITCH

111

Our sense of taste, also to keep poisons out of our digestive system

gustation

112

the 5 taste sensations.
1. ?
2. sour
3. ?
4. sweet
5. ? (savory or yummy)
Every taste experience is am mixture of these 5 qualities.

salty



bitter

umani

113

MSG is a flavor enhancer

Monosodium glutamate

114

results from intense taste sensation. ? is the determinant of whether a person is a ?

supertasters


genes

supertaster

115

people lose half their taste receptors by age

20

116

because tastes can be overwhelming ? and ? happen to be picky eaters

children and supertasters

117

Mothers pass their ?? to their offspring

eating preferences

118

Which factors can influence taste preferences?
1. genetics
2.?
3. texture of food
4. ?

culture

exposure to flavors in the womb via breast milk

119

Life with no taste buds: You could detect texture of food but not ?

flavor

120

Of all the senses of smell ? has the most direct route to the brain. Like taste it involves the sensing of chemicals that come from outside the ?.

olfaction



body

121

A thin layer of tissue, within the nasal cavity, that contains the receptors for smell.

olfactory epithelium

122

The brain center for smell, located right below the frontal lobes. Which can also evoke feelings and memories.

Olfactory bulb

123

? are processed like olfactory stimuli. They are chemicals released by animals, probably by humans too, they trigger physiological or behavioral reactions in other animals and insects.

Pheromones

124

The sequence of smell.
1. olfactory ?
2. ? bulb
3. olfactory ?
4. ??
5. and other brain areas

olfactory epithelium

olfactory bulb

olfactory nerve

frontal cortex

125

Anything that makes contact with our skin provides??

Tactile stimulation

126

The ?? for both temperature and pressure are sensory neurons that reach to the skin's outer layer.

haptic receptors

127

The actual experience of pain is created by the ?

brain

128

tactile stimuluation gives rise to the sense of ?

touch

129

haptic receptors process information about ? and ?

temperature and pressure

130

Pain receptors are located all over the body but the most pain is signaled by the ?? in the skin

haptic receptors

131

Fast, ? fibers process info about sharp sudden pain, slow ? fibers process chronic dull pan.

myelinated


nonmyelinated

132

Ways to ? pain include activating touch or other sense, mental distraction, and thinking pleasant ?.

decrease


thoughts

133

Decreasing pain perception.
1. music
2. ? the area
3. ? activity
4. ? to relieve pain

rubbing


distracting

medication

134

according to the control theory, a gate in the brain controls pain perception

false

135

according to gate control theory, gate for pain perception can be occupied by the activation of other signals from the body

True

136

Distraction can decrease pain perception

True

137

Fear, anger, depression can increase the pain perception.

True

138

Listening to music increases pain perception

False

139

Being well rested can decrease pain perception

True

140

Imaging pain as a pleasant stimulus can decrease pain perception

True

141

The actual experience of pain is created by the ?

brain

142

tactile stimuluation gives rise to the sense of ?

touch

143

haptic receptors process information about ? and ?

temperature and pressure

144

Pain receptors are located all over the body but the most pain is signaled by the ?? in the skin

haptic receptors

145

Fast, ? fibers process info about sharp sudden pain, slow ? fibers process chronic dull pan.

myelinated


nonmyelinated

146

Ways to ? pain include activating touch or other sense, mental distraction, and thinking pleasant ?.

decrease


thoughts

147

Decreasing pain perception.
1. music
2. ? the area
3. ? activity
4. ? to relieve pain

rubbing


distracting

medication

148

according to the control theory, a gate in the brain controls pain perception

false

149

according to gate control theory, gate for pain perception can be occupied by the activation of other signals from the body

True

150

Distraction can decrease pain perception

True

151

Fear, anger, depression can increase the pain perception.

True

152

Listening to music increases pain perception

False

153

Being well rested can decrease pain perception

True

154

Imaging pain as a pleasant stimulus can decrease pain perception

True