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Flashcards in Ch5 Book Questions Deck (121):
1

What are obsessive-compulsive and related disorders?

A) marked by episodes if extreme anxiety and feelings of impending doom; characterized by attacks that seem to occur "out of the blue"

B) strong, irrational fears. Some may involve anxiety over situations which other can observe the person. Some many include irrational fears that aren't classified. Commonly feared objects are animals, heights, and the dark

C) involves chronically high levels of anxiety and excessive worry that are present for 3 months or more

D) involves thoughts or actions that are involuntary, intrusive, repetitive, and uncontrollable. Many diagnosed are aware that their distressing behaviors are irrational

D

2

What are panic disorders?

A) marked by episodes if extreme anxiety and feelings of impending doom; characterized by attacks that seem to occur "out of the blue"

B) strong, irrational fears. Some may involve anxiety over situations which other can observe the person. Some many include irrational fears that aren't classified. Commonly feared objects are animals, heights, and the dark

C) involves chronically high levels of anxiety and excessive worry that are present for 3 months or more

D) involves thoughts or actions that are involuntary, intrusive, repetitive, and uncontrollable. Many diagnosed are aware that their distressing behaviors are irrational

A

3

What is generalized anxiety disorder?

A) marked by episodes if extreme anxiety and feelings of impending doom; characterized by attacks that seem to occur "out of the blue"

B) strong, irrational fears. Some may involve anxiety over situations which other can observe the person. Some many include irrational fears that aren't classified. Commonly feared objects are animals, heights, and the dark

C) involves chronically high levels of anxiety and excessive worry that are present for 3 months or more

D) involves thoughts or actions that are involuntary, intrusive, repetitive, and uncontrollable. Many diagnosed are aware that their distressing behaviors are irrational

C

4

How are biological, psychological, social, and sociocultural factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders?

Biological: inherited overactivity of the fear circuitry in the brain and neurotransmitter abnormalities. *however, anxiety disorders may NOT develop in genetically predisposed ppl if in a supportive family or social environment.
Sociocultural: power and status, discrimination, and poverty may be responsible for greater number of women with anxiety

5

An intense fear of being in public places to where escape or help may not be possible.
A) agoraphobia
B) specific phobia
C) social phobia
D) generalized anxiety disorder

A

6

What is the cause for phobias?

Biological explanations are based on the influence of genetic, biochemical, and neurological factors and the idea that humans are predisposed to develop certain fears.
Psychological:
1. classical conditioning where fears phobias are based on an association between an event and a conditioned stimulus (kool aid and chemo)
2. Observational learning (video)
3. Negative information (being told something scary and then being afraid)
4. Cognitions (negative thinking)'

7

What causes panic disorders?

Biological factors: genetics, neural structure, neurotransmitters.

Psychological:
1. Cognitive-behavioral emphasizes catastrophic thinking regarding bodily sensations
2. Social and sociocultural: disturbed childhood environment and gender-related issues)

8

What causes generalized anxiety disorder?

Biological: little support for genetics; some abnormalities with GABA receptors or overactivity of anxiety circuitry of the brain.

Cognitive-Behavioral: erroneous beliefs of the purpose of worry or the existence of dysfunctional schemas.

Social and sociocultural: poverty and discrimination are contributing factors

9

What is the cause for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders?

Biological: increased metabolic activity in the orbital frontal cortex in those with OCD.

Cognitive-Behavioral: confirmatory bias, probability bias, and mortality bias

10

What is the anxiety-reduction hypothesis?

Obsessions and compulsions develop because they reduce anxiety

11

How are phobias treated?
A) anti-depressants

B) biochemical treatments such as benzodiazepines and anti-depressants and behavioral treatments such as identifying catastrophic thoughts and substituting them for more realistic ones

C) biochemical (antidepressants) and cognitive-behavioral such as exposure therapy, flooding, systematic desensitization, and modeling

D) anti-anxiety meds are less effective with this disorder, treatment of choice is a combination of flooding and response prevention, sometimes combined with cognitive therapy

C

12

How are panic disorders treated?
A) anti-depressants

B) biochemical treatments such as benzodiazepines and anti-depressants and behavioral treatments such as identifying catastrophic thoughts and substituting them for more realistic ones

C) biochemical (antidepressants) and cognitive-behavioral such as exposure therapy, flooding, systematic desensitization, and modeling

D) anti-anxiety meds are less effective with this disorder, treatment of choice is a combination of flooding and response prevention, sometimes combined with cognitive therapy

B

13

How are obsessive-compulsive and related disorders treated?
A) anti-depressants

B) biochemical treatments such as benzodiazepines and anti-depressants and behavioral treatments such as identifying catastrophic thoughts and substituting them for more realistic ones

C) biochemical (antidepressants) and cognitive-behavioral such as exposure therapy, flooding, systematic desensitization, and modeling

D) anti-anxiety meds are less effective with this disorder, treatment of choice is a combination of flooding and response prevention, sometimes combined with cognitive therapy

D

14

How is generalized anxiety disorder treated?
A) anti-depressants

B) biochemical treatments such as benzodiazepines and anti-depressants and behavioral treatments such as identifying catastrophic thoughts and substituting them for more realistic ones

C) biochemical (antidepressants) and cognitive-behavioral such as exposure therapy, flooding, systematic desensitization, and modeling

D) anti-anxiety meds are less effective with this disorder, treatment of choice is a combination of flooding and response prevention, sometimes combined with cognitive therapy

A

15

4 major groups of anxiety disorders are...

1. Phobias
2. Panic disorders
3. Agoraphobia
4. Generalized anxiety disorder

16

4 types of obsessive compulsive and related disorders are...

1. Hair pulling
2. Skin picking
3. Obsessive compulsive disorder
4. Body dysmorphic disorder

17

4 types of obsessive compulsive disorder subtypes

1. Hoarding
2. Contamination
3. Symmetry obsession
4. Harm-related, sexual, aggressive, and/or religious obsession

18

3 types of panic attacks

1. Unexpected or uncued
2. Situationally bound
3. Situationally predisposed

19

Which of the following is NOT a type of OCD?
A) hoarding
B) symmetry
C) contamination
D) hair pulling

D; hair pulling is an obsessive-compulsive and related disorder category. A-C are subtypes of the OCD type of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders

20

Recurrent and persistent intrusive thoughts and impulses. Attempts are made to suppress thoughts and behaviors. Thoughts and behaviors are recognized as unreasonable.
A) body dysmorphic disorder
B) obsessive-compulsive disorder
C) hair pulling
D) skin picking

B

21

Intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety
A) compulsions
B) anxiety
C) panic attack
D) obsession

D

22

The need to perform acts or to dwell in thoughts to reduce anxiety
A) compulsions
B) anxiety
C) panic attack
D) obsession

A

23

Perception of bodily changes can now automatically produce fear and lead to panic attacks
A) hyper vigilance
B) hypo vigilance
C) interoceptive conditioning
D) interoceptive sensitivity

C

24

Vigilance over changes in the physiological condition of the body such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. When physical bodily changes are detected, anxiety increases, resulting in greater physiological responses and more anxiety
ear and lead to panic attacks
A) hyper vigilance
B) hypo vigilance
C) interoceptive conditioning
D) interoceptive sensitivity

D

25

An intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, or fear of losing control or dying
A) phobia
B) anxiety
C) panic attack
D) panic disorder

C

26

What is the criteria for diagnosing someone with a panic disorder?

Recurrent unexpected panic attacks in combination with
1. Worry of having another attack and the consequences of having one (fear of losing ability to breath etc.)

2. Changes in behavior or activities to avoid panic attack situations (no longer driving due to fear of attack)

27

What are phobias?
A) marked by episodes if extreme anxiety and feelings of impending doom; characterized by attacks that seem to occur "out of the blue"

B) strong, irrational fears. Some may involve anxiety over situations which other can observe the person. Some many include irrational fears that aren't classified. Commonly feared objects are animals, heights, and the dark

C) involves chronically high levels of anxiety and excessive worry that are present for 3 months or more

D) involves thoughts or actions that are involuntary, intrusive, repetitive, and uncontrollable. Many diagnosed are aware that their distressing behaviors are irrational

B

28

A feeling of uneasiness or apprehension
A) fear
B) anxiety
C) panic
D) obsession

B

29

Panic attacks are
A) experienced as an intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, and fear of losing control or dying

B) characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstances; diagnosis requires symptoms to be present most days for at least 3 months, accompanied by physical or somatic symptoms

C) recurrent unexpected panic attacks in combination with apprehension over having another attack or worrying about the consequences of an attack, or changes in behavior or activities designed to avoid another panic attack, such as avoiding situations. Has to last at least 1 month

D) a strong, persistent and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation; experience extreme anxiety when encouraged with the stimulus

E) characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety or the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety

F) fear or anxiety occurs even when there is no danger present which affects day-to-day functioning

A

30

Phobias are
A) experienced as an intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, and fear of losing control or dying

B) characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstances; diagnosis requires symptoms to be present most days for at least 3 months, accompanied by physical or somatic symptoms

C) recurrent unexpected panic attacks in combination with apprehension over having another attack or worrying about the consequences of an attack, or changes in behavior or activities designed to avoid another panic attack, such as avoiding situations. Has to last at least 1 month

D) a strong, persistent and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation; experience extreme anxiety when encouraged with the stimulus

E) characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety or the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety

F) fear or anxiety occurs even when there is no danger present which affects day-to-day functioning

D

31

Anxiety disorder is

A) experienced as an intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, and fear of losing control or dying

B) characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstances; diagnosis requires symptoms to be present most days for at least 3 months, accompanied by physical or somatic symptoms

C) recurrent unexpected panic attacks in combination with apprehension over having another attack or worrying about the consequences of an attack, or changes in behavior or activities designed to avoid another panic attack, such as avoiding situations. Has to last at least 1 month

D) a strong, persistent and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation; experience extreme anxiety when encouraged with the stimulus

E) characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety or the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety

F) fear or anxiety occurs even when there is no danger present which affects day-to-day functioning

F

32

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is
A) experienced as an intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, and fear of losing control or dying

B) characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstances; diagnosis requires symptoms to be present most days for at least 3 months, accompanied by physical or somatic symptoms

C) recurrent unexpected panic attacks in combination with apprehension over having another attack or worrying about the consequences of an attack, or changes in behavior or activities designed to avoid another panic attack, such as avoiding situations. Has to last at least 1 month

D) a strong, persistent and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation; experience extreme anxiety when encouraged with the stimulus

E) characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety or the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety

F) fear or anxiety occurs even when there is no danger present which affects day-to-day functioning

E

33

Generalized anxiety disorder
A) experienced as an intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, and fear of losing control or dying

B) characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstances; diagnosis requires symptoms to be present most days for at least 3 months, accompanied by physical or somatic symptoms

C) recurrent unexpected panic attacks in combination with apprehension over having another attack or worrying about the consequences of an attack, or changes in behavior or activities designed to avoid another panic attack, such as avoiding situations. Has to last at least 1 month

D) a strong, persistent and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation; experience extreme anxiety when encouraged with the stimulus

E) characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety or the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety

F) fear or anxiety occurs even when there is no danger present which affects day-to-day functioning

B

34

Panic disorders are
A) experienced as an intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, and fear of losing control or dying

B) characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstances; diagnosis requires symptoms to be present most days for at least 3 months, accompanied by physical or somatic symptoms

C) recurrent unexpected panic attacks in combination with apprehension over having another attack or worrying about the consequences of an attack, or changes in behavior or activities designed to avoid another panic attack, such as avoiding situations. Has to last at least 1 month

D) a strong, persistent and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation; experience extreme anxiety when encouraged with the stimulus

E) characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety or the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety

F) fear or anxiety occurs even when there is no danger present which affects day-to-day functioning

C

35

True or False: everyone who experiences panic attacks has an anxiety disorder

False

36

Irrational fear of being scrutinized or judged by others
A) social phobia
B) generalized anxiety disorder
C) panic disorder
D) specific phobia
E) agoraphobia

A

37

Anxiety or panic in situations where escape might be difficult or embarrassing
A) social phobia
B) generalized anxiety disorder
C) panic disorder
D) specific phobia
E) agoraphobia

E

38

Triggers the fear response
A) hypothalamus
B) hippocampus
C) amygdala
D) prefrontal cortex

C

39

Explain the 2 pathways of the amygdala in response to potential threats

1. Directly to amygdala:
-fast pathway
-unconscious
-elicits flight/fight mode
-adaptive: allows you to escape danger before its consciously detected
-amygdala sends signals to different parts of the brain to causing freezing, startle reflex, increase BP, and release stress hormones

2. To the hippocampus:
-dampens the amygdala's effects
-slower pathway
-conscious
-signals go to prefrontal cortex to evaluate the "feared" stimulus which is an opportunity to override the initial fear response
-prefrontal cortex reduces anxiety by inhibiting fear response from the amygdala

40

What functions does the amygdala do to elicit the fear response?

Sends signals to parts of the brain to cause the startle reflex, freezing response, increase BP and release stress response

41

Short alleles in the serotonin transporter gene are associated with
A) reduced serotonin activity and increased fear and anxiety related behaviors

B) increased dopamine and reduce activity of the amygdala

C) strengths the hippocampus and normalizes anxiety circuits

D) reduces arousal and deconditions the fear response

A

42

True or False: in concern with anxiety disorders, those with the shorter allele also show differences in brain structure in areas that affect mood and emotions such as anxiety and depression, however, having this predisposition does not necessarily mean that one will develop an anxiety disorder

True

43

In concern to anxiety disorders, ____ are also involved in the modulation I'd learning and extinction of fear in the amygdala
A) dopamine
B) serotonin
C) GABA
D) benzodiazepines

C

44

What are social and sociocultural factors affect the development of anxiety disorders?

-daily environmental stressors
-those with low incomes
-gender roles: females are more likely due to lack of power and status which increases stress hormones
-exposure to discrimination

45

True or False: males are more likely to have an anxiety disorder than females

False; opposite

46

True or False: nearly anything can become the focus is intense fear to develop a phobia

True

47

What are the 2 types of social phobias?

1. Generalized type: experience high anxiety in most social situations

2. Performance type: associated with particular activities such as public speaking, eating in restaurants, playing an instrument etc

48

True or False: women are twice as likely to have a social phobia

True

49

What are the 5 primary types of specific phobias?

1. Animal
2. Natural environment
3. Blood/injection/ injury type
4. Situational
5. Other

50

True or False: specific phobias are equally common in males and females

False; twice as common in women as men

51

When do phobias often begin?
A) infancy
B) childhood
C) adolescence
D) early adulthood

B

52

How are blood phobias different from other phobias?

They're associate with a physiological reaction of fainting in the phobic situation

53

What is agoraphobia?

An intense fear of at least 2 of the following:
1. Going outside home alone
2. Using public transportation
3. Being in open spaces
4. Being in stores and theaters
5. Standing in line or a crowd

These situations are feared because of not being able to escape or help may not be readily available

54

True or False: agoraphobia occurs more frequently in males

False; twice as common in females than males

55

Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?
A) agoraphobia
B) panic disorder
C) obsessive-compulsive disorders
D) phobias

C

56

True or False: those with phobias have an increased activation within the fear network in reaction to phobic stimuli

True

57

What are the 4 psychological ways to develop a phobia?

1. Classical conditioning (kool aid and chemo)
2. Observational learning
3. Cognitive process (catastrophic thinking)
4. Negative informational effects (telling someone about scary stimulus)

58

Fear responses that arise from the observation of fear displayed by others either in real life or mass media
A) classical conditioning
B) cognitive-behavioral
C) negative information perspective
D) observational learning

D

59

Information causes someone to fear an object or situation
A) classical conditioning
B) cognitive-behavioral
C) negative information perspective
D) observational learning

C

60

Women undergoing chemotherapy were given lemon-lime kool aid after repeated bouts of chemotherapy. After repeated bouts, the women indicated emotional distress and nausea present with the drink
A) classical conditioning
B) cognitive-behavioral
C) negative information perspective
D) observational learning

A

61

The video showed an uncomfortable shock being deliver to a man in response to a stimulus. Observers were told that they would participate in a similar experiment. When shown the stimulus participants responded in fear
A) classical conditioning
B) cognitive-behavioral
C) negative information perspective
D) observational learning

D

62

Negative thoughts such as "I will suffocate" or "I will lose control" says those who are claustrophobic
A) classical conditioning
B) cognitive-behavioral
C) negative information perspective
D) observational learning

B

63

Appraisal, cognitive distortions, and catastrophic thoughts may cause strong fears to develop
A) classical conditioning
B) cognitive-behavioral
C) negative information perspective
D) observational learning

B

64

True or False: females are more likely to develop a phobia

True

65

What types of fears are there few gender differences? (3 types)

1. Bodily injury fears
2. Social fears
3. Fears of enclosed spaces

66

True or False: phobias appear to be more common in families who use shame as a method of control

True

67

Fear of offending it embarrassing others; fear that ones appearance, facial expressions, body parts, eye contacts, etc are offensive to others
A) specific phobia
B) situational phobia
C) taijin kyofusho
D) social phobia

C

68

What types of behavioral approaches are used to treat phobias?

1. Exposure therapy
2. Systematic desensitization
3. Cognitive restructuring
4. Modeling therapy

69

Type of behavioral treatment for phobias which consists of gradually introducing one to the feared situation or object until fear dissipates
A) systematic desensitization
B) cognitive restructuring
C) exposure therapy
D) modeling therapy

C

70

Type of behavioral treatment for phobias which is similar to exposure but with an additional response, such as relaxation, to help combat anxiety
A) systematic desensitization
B) cognitive restructuring
C) exposure therapy
D) modeling therapy

A

71

Type of behavioral treatment for phobias which identifies and changes irrational or anxiety-arousing thoughts associated with phobias
A) systematic desensitization
B) cognitive restructuring
C) exposure therapy
D) modeling therapy

B

72

Type of behavioral treatment for phobias which demonstrates another persons successful interactions with the feared object or situation
A) systematic desensitization
B) cognitive restructuring
C) exposure therapy
D) modeling therapy

D

73

Procedure that is used for the treatment of the fainting and drop in blood pressure associated with blood-injection phobia
A) taijin kyofusho
B) applied tension
C) preparedness
D) ataque de nervios

B

74

Muscle relaxation to reduce anxiety associated with phobias
A) exposure therapy
B) systematic desensitization
C) modeling therapy
D) cognitive restructuring

B

75

Individual with the phobia observes a model coping with or responding appropriately in a fear situation
A) cognitive restructuring
B) exposure therapy
C) modeling therapy
D) systematic desensitization

C

76

How long do reactions or symptoms have to last to be diagnosed with a panic disorder?
A) at least 3 months
B) at least 1 month
C) at least 6 months
D) not specified

B

77

Occurs before or during exposure to a feared stimulus
A) uncued or unexpected
B) situationally bound
C) situationally predisposed

B

78

Sometimes, but not always, occur when encountering the feared situation (those with a fear of crowds may not have a panic attack in a groups situation)
A) uncued or unexpected
B) situationally bound
C) situationally predisposed

C

79

Attacks that occur spontaneously and without warning
A) uncued or unexpected
B) situationally bound
C) situationally predisposed

A

80

True or False: agoraphobia is a comorbidity of panic disorders

False; can have agoraphobia but not necessarily

81

True or False: abnormalities in a serotonin receptor gene may contribute to panic disorders

True; anxiety disorders as well (with the 2 short alleles); panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder

82

What is the function of SSRIs with panic disorders?
A) decrease serotonin to the brain
B) are ineffective in treating panic disorders
C) increases serotonin to the brain
D) strengthens the hippocampus and facilitates neuroplasticity

C; and is effective in treating panic disorders

83

True or False: physiological sensitivity can be learned by watching parents or friends express fears about physical sensations

True

84

How are panic disorders caused according to the cognitive-behavioral perspective?

Viewed as a positive feedback loop that increases anxiety levels.
1. Physiological changes occur (increase HR and breathing)

2. Catastrophic thoughts ("I'm having a heart attack")

3. Thoughts generate further fear and increase physiological changes

85

Perception that bodily changes can now automatically produce fear and lead to panic attacks
A) interoceptive conditioning
B) interoceptive sensitivity
C) hypo vigilance
D) hyper vigilance

A

86

True or False: anxiety-producing conditions precede or accompany panic attacks, but reduced panic-cognitions is associated with a subsequent reduction in panic attacks

True

87

True or False: inheritance plays a role in the cause of panic disorders

True; 32%

88

What type of disorder are benzodiazepines the least effective
A) generalized anxiety disorder
B) phobias
C) OCD
D) panic disorders

D

89

True or False: benzodiazepines are effective in treating panic disorders

False; best treatment is cognitive behavioral therapy

90

What type of treatment is best for treating panic disorders?
A) flooding and SSRIs
B) exposure therapy and benzodiazepines
C) cognitive behavioral therapy
D) antidepressants

C

91

What are the steps for cognitive behavioral therapy for treating panic disorders?

1. Educate client about panic disorders
2. Identify and correct catastrophic thoughts
3. Self-induce physiological symptoms associated with the panic
4. Encourage client yo face symptoms
5. Teach coping
6. Help client identify antecedents

92

When does generalized anxiety disorder typically develop?
A) infancy
B) late adulthood
C) childhood or adolescence
D) adolescence or early adulthood

C

93

How long do symptoms for generalized anxiety disorder have to last for one to be diagnosed?
A) at least 3 months
B) at least 1 month
C) at least 6 months
D) unspecified

A

94

This disorder is caused by abnormalities of GABA receptors and disruption of the prefrontal cortex in response to the amygdala in a threatening situation
A) phobias
B) OCD
C) panic disorder
D) generalized anxiety disorder

D

95

What are the biological causes for generalized anxiety disorder?
A) abnormalities of serotonin receptor gene
B) abnormalities of GABA receptors and the disruption of the prefrontal cortex from modulating the response of the amygdala to threatening situations

C) increased metabolism of the orbital frontal cortex
D) having an overactive amygdala

B

96

What are the biological causes for phobias?
A) abnormalities of serotonin receptor gene
B) abnormalities of GABA receptors and the disruption of the prefrontal cortex from modulating the response of the amygdala to threatening situations

C) increased metabolism of the orbital frontal cortex
D) having an overactive amygdala

D

97

What are the biological causes for OCD disorder?
A) abnormalities of serotonin receptor gene
B) abnormalities of GABA receptors and the disruption of the prefrontal cortex from modulating the response of the amygdala to threatening situations

C) increased metabolism of the orbital frontal cortex
D) having an overactive amygdala

C

98

What are the biological causes for anxiety disorder?
A) abnormalities of serotonin receptor gene
B) abnormalities of GABA receptors and the disruption of the prefrontal cortex from modulating the response of the amygdala to threatening situations

C) increased metabolism of the orbital frontal cortex
D) having an overactive amygdala

A

99

What are the 2 types of worry associated with generalized anxiety disorder? Which causes GAD?

1. Belief that worry has a positive, coping function; thus it occurs frequently

2. Worry about worrying leads to increased anxiety and reinforces the view that worry has negative effects

#2 causes GAD

100

True or False: benzodiazepines are not effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder

False; cognitive behavioral treatment is used as well. Benzodiazepines are ineffective in treating panic disorders

101

True or False: OCD may be over-diagnosed

False; may be under diagnosed

102

True or False: OCD is equally common in males and females

True

103

True or False: normal people are similar to those either OCD in the fact that nearly 80% report unpleasant intrusive thoughts and impulses

True

104

What are the 3 cognitive characteristics which those with OCD portray?

1. Threat estimation: exaggerated estimate regarding the probability of harm

2. Control: need to control thoughts in fear of being overwhelmed

3. Intolerance of uncertainty: need to be certain about everything you do or the ticks you have (ex: locking doors, need to check repeatedly)

105

This is a bias that is thought to be responsible for OCD, which states generating a search for evidence undermines ones confidence
A) disconfirmatory bias
B) morality bias
C) probability bias

A

106

This is a bias thought to be responsible for OCD which is the belief that having a thought, such as shouting obscenities at church, increases the chance the action will occur
A) disconfirmatory bias
B) morality bias
C) probability bias

C

107

This is a bias thought to be responsible for OCD which views that having an immoral thought, such as throwing a child, is as bad as the actual behavior
A) disconfirmatory bias
B) morality bias
C) probability bias

B

108

What 2 disorders are benzodiazepines less effective in treating?

Panic disorders and OCD

109

True or False: SSRIs are recommended for treating OCD

True; benzodiazepines are not effective though

110

A technique that involves inducing a high anxiety level through continued actual or imagined exposure to a fear-arousing situation
A) exposure therapy
B) systematic desensitization
C) flooding
D) cognitive restructuring

C

111

What are the 3 most common compulsions?

1. Excessive washing
2. Repeated rituals
3. Checking behaviors

112

True or False: compulsions are always associated with obsessions

False

113

True or False: some individuals with body dysmorphic disorder can recognize their "flaws" are untrue

True

114

What is the most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder?
A) phobias
B) panic disorders
C) generalized anxiety disorder
D) agoraphobia

C

115

What are the 4 most common obsessions?

1. Contamination
2. Making errors of uncertainty
3. Unwanted impulses
4. Orderliness

116

What are the 3 most common compulsions?

1. Washing
2. Repeated rituals
3. Checking behaviors

117

True or False: OCD is equally common among men and women.

True

118

Threat estimation, control, and intolerance of uncertainty are cognitive characteristics of...
A) OCD
B) GAD
C) Panic disorder
D) Phobias

A

119

Belief that having a thought increases the chance that the action will occur
A) mortality bias
B) disconfirmatory bias
C) interoceptive sensitivity
D) probability bias

D

120

Belief that having an immoral thought is as bad as performing the actual behavior
A) mortality bias
B) disconfirmatory bias
C) interoceptive sensitivity
D) probability bias

A

121

Generating a search for evidence that undermines ones confidence
A) mortality bias
B) disconfirmatory bias
C) interoceptive sensitivity
D) probability bias

B