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Flashcards in Ch5-P154-162EndReverse Deck (18):
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  1. Binding of organs – e.g. tendons bind muscle to bone
  2. Support – e.g. bones of the skeletal system provide rigid support for the body
  3. Physical protection – e.g. vertebral column protects the spinal cord & fat cushions organs like the kidneys
  4. Storage – e.g. adipose tissue stores the bodies major energy reserve and bones provide storage for minerals like calcium
  5. Transport -  e.g. blood transports the gases, nutrients, hormones and wastes throughout the body  

What are the 5 functions of connective tissue

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1. Fibrous connective tissue (2 subtypes):

  • Loose fibrous connective tissue (2 subtypes)
    • Areolar tissue
    • Reticular tissue
  • Dense fibrous connective tissue (2 subtypes)
    • Dense regular connective tissue
    • Dense irregular connective tissue

2. Adipose tissue

3. Cartilage (3 subtypes):

  • Hyaline cartilage
  • Elastic cartilage
  • Fibrocartilage

4. Bone (2 subtypes: spongy & compact)

5. Blood  

State the 5 main categories of CTs & their subtypes

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  • Loose fibrous connective tissue (LFCT)
    • gel-like ground substance between cells
    • types
      • areolar
      • reticular
      • adipose
  • Dense fibrous connective tissue (DFCT)
    • fibres fill spaces between cells
    • types vary in fibre orientation
      • dense regular connective tissue
      • dense irregular connective tissue

1. Fibrous Connective Tissue Types

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  • Loose arrangement of fibres and cells in abundant ground substance
  • Underlies all epithelia, between muscles, passageways for nerves and blood vessels

1.  Areolar Tissue (LFCT)

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  • Loose network of reticular fibres and cells
  • Forms supportive stroma (framework) for lymphatic organs
  • Found in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and bone marrow

1. Reticular Tissue (LFCT)

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  • Densely, packed, parallel collagen fibres
    • compressed fibroblast nuclei
  • Tendons and ligaments hold bones together and attach muscles to bones

1. Dense Regular Connective Tissue (DFCT)

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  • Densely packed, randomly arranged, collagen fibres and few visible cells
    • withstands stresses applied in different directions
    • deeper layer of skin; capsules around organs

1. Dense Irregular CT (DFCT)

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  • Empty-looking cells with thin margins; nucleus pressed against cell membrane
  • Energy storage, insulation, cushioning
    • subcutaneous fat and organ packing
    • brown fat (hibernating animals) produces heat

2. Adipose Tissue

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  • Supportive connective tissue with flexible rubbery matrix
  • Chondroblasts produce matrix
    • called chondrocytes once surrounded
  • No blood vessels
    • diffusion brings nutrients and removes wastes
    • heals slowly
  • Types of cartilage vary with fibre types
    • hyaline, fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage

3. Cartilage

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  • Rubbery matrix; dispersed collagen fibres; clustered chondrocytes in lacunae
    • supports airway, eases joint movements
  • Ends of bones at movable joints; sternal ends of ribs; supportive material in larynx, trachea, bronchi and fetal skeleton

3. Hyaline Cartilage

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  • Hyaline cartilage with elastic fibres
  • Provides flexible, elastic support
    • external ear and epiglottis

3. Elastic Cartilage

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  • Hyaline cartilage with extensive collagen fibres (never has perichondrium)
  • Resists compression and absorbs shock
    • pubic symphysis, meniscus and intervertebral discs

3. Fibrocartilage

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  • Hard connective tissue that consists of living cells and mineralized matrix (specialised crystals called hydroxyapatite which contain calcium and phosphate)
  • Bone cells, or osteocytes, are found within holes in the matrix, called lacunae
  • Two types of bone:
    • Spongy bone
      • Spongy in appearance with delicate struts of bone, honeycomb-like, covered by compact bone
    • Compact bone
      • solid in appearance, consists of osteons (cylinders of tissue that surround a central canal), found on periphery of bone 

4. Bone

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  • A fluid CT with a variety of cells and cell fragments; some with nuclei and some without but no fibres present
  • Non-nucleated pale pink cells or nucleated white blood cells with ground substance being the plasma
  • Found in heart and blood vessels

5. Blood

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mineralized 

Bone needs to be tough and hard to serve its protective function hence the matrix is ______?

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strong in one direction and their DFCT type with parallel wavy fibres along a tendons length allows this to happen

Tendons and ligaments are subjected to large tensile forces so need to be 

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loosely organised fibres which allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through and typically are found under every epithelial tissue to nourish it.  This wouldn’t be possible with DFCT

Loose fibrous CT types like areolar CT contains 

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  1. shock absorption
  2.  long bones

  1. Cartilage consists of a flexible rubbery matrix that makes it well suited for _____ ______.
  2. Hyaline cartilage is found on the ends of ____ _____ with fibrocartilage found between vertebrae and also in the knee, places where joint compression and shock absorption is high