Ch5: URT Chaussee Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch5: URT Chaussee Deck (104)
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1

What does upper respiratory mean?

Above larynx

2

How does number of microbes change throughout lung?

Very high in the mouth
Decreases as you move down the respiratory tract
None in lungs

3

Where does RT become aseptic?

Alveolar bronchiole

4

Normal flora has what role in RT?

Protects by competing with harmful microbes

5

What bacteria are in middle ear and sinuses?

None, sterile

6

Normal flora of URT? (50% of people or more)

1. Corynebacteria
2. Candida albicans
3. Alpha-hemolytic strep
4. Strep mutants
5. Haemophilus influenzae
6. Neisseria
7. Non staph aureus staph

7

Host defenses in URT?

1. Orthogonal structure
2. Saliva
3. Mucin and mucus
4. TLR's

8

the orthagonal structure of URT has what effect?

Traps microbes

9

What does saliva contain? 2

Lysozyme
Secretory IgA

10

What does mucus do?

Traps microbes from entering LRT.

11

What sweeps mucus up and out and into stomach?

Ciliated epithelial cells

12

Ciliated epithelial cells + Mucus = ?

Mucocilliary escalator

13

50-70% of sore throats are caused by what in children?

Viruses

14

What symptoms suggest a viral sore throat?

Conjunctivitis
Coryza
Ulcerative lesions
Viral exanthema
Diarrhea

15

What percentage of adult sore throats are viral?

0%

16

Bacterial causes of pharyngitis?

1. Group A strep:
2. Group C and G strep
3. Anaerobes (bacterioides, fusobacterium, spirochetes
4. Corynebacterium diptherae
5. Neisseria gonorrhoea

17

Which bacterial causes of pharyngitis are common?
Infrequent?

Group A strep = common

Group C and G strep = infrequent
Neisseria gonorrhea = infrequent

18

GAS caused pharyngitis has what associations? 3

Tonsilitis, scarlet fever, sequelae

19

What are spirochetes that cause pharyngitis?
What else are they associated with?

Borrelia and treponema

Trench mouth

20

In terms of GAS strep throat
Onset?
Symptoms? (3)

1. Severe pain
2. Difficulting swallowing
3. Flu-like

21

Suppurative sequelae of GAS? 4

1. Peritonsillar abscess
2. Otitis media, sinusitis, mastoiditis
3. Scarlet fever
4. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

22

Scarlet fever encompasses what?

Peripheral rash (Maybe strawberry tongue) caused by SPE's

23

What is STSS due to?

Production of Spe's that act as superantigens

24

What happens if GAS is in the blood?

Bacteremia and toxigenic disease

25

Non-suppurative/post infection sequelae to GAS pharyngitis?

Acute rheumatic fever: Due to autoimmune

26

Why does acute rheumatic fever occur?
How long does it take to develop?
What percent of kids get it?

M protein mimics cardiac myosin
3 weeks
3%

27

Clinical diagnosis of ARF is based on what?

Jones criteria

28

ARF typically follows what type of GAS infection?

Pharyngeal

29

What is the Jones criteria requirements for GAS?

Evidence of previous GAS infection
2 major or 1 major + 2 minor

30

Major manifestations of ARF? 5

1. Joints
2. Heart inflammed
3. Nodules subcutaneous
4. Erythema marginatum
5. Sydenham's Chorea