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Flashcards in Ch.6 Deck (60):
1

Is a relatively enduring change in behavior resulting from experience

Learning

2

A newborn according to John Locke is a ?? meaning born knowing nothing

Tabula rasa

3

According to John Watson ?? was the only valid indicator of psychological activity?

observable behavior

4

There are 3 types of learning
1. ?- learning about a stimulus such as sight or sound, in the external world.
2. ?- learning the relationship between 2 pieces of information. Also includes classical and operant conditioning. The linking of 2 events that happen one after another.
3. ?- Learning by watching how others behave

Non-associative



Associative



Observational

5

A decreased in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus

habituation

6

An increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus. Threatening/Painful stimuli are the kind of stimuli that lead to this.

sensitization

7

The non associative learning process includes ?? being the simple forms of learning.

habituation and sensitization

8

What types of learning are these?
1. After watching her clean you do the same and clean.
2. Every time your roommate sleeps you cook.
3. Since it is Mon you know you get free lunch.
4. You tune your lil bro as he talks nonstop.

1. observational



2. associative


3. associative



4. non-associative

9

The process that connects the environmental stimuli to behavior. An associative learning in which neural stimulus elicits a response. When we learn that another stimulus predicts another stimulus.
1. ex: ivav pavlov studied salivation in dogs

classical conditioning
also known as Pavlovian conditioning

10

When we learn that a behavior leads to a certain outcome.
ex: bf skinner did not believe in subjective states
ex: behavior modification can change undesirable behaviors
ex a behavior is associate w its consequences

Operant conditioning

11

The salivation elicited by food was the. It is a response that doesn't need to be learned it's a reflex

unconditioned response UR

12

Pavlov called the salivation elicited by food the. A stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning.

unconditioned response UR

13

Bc the clicking of the metronome produces salivation after training this is called the ??. It only elicits a response after learning takes place.

conditioned stimulus

14

The learned association of the metronome a conditioned stimulus and the food an unconditioned stimulus is called ?

acquisition

15

Learning that the metronome and food occur together in time making them a bond is ?

contiguity

16

When the metronome is presented several times and food is not presented leading the animal's salivary response to stop is known as ?

extinction

17

Then out of no where the metronome is presented after extinction and the dog's response salivation this is know as ??

spontaneous recovery

18

?? occurs when stimuli similar to the CS produces the CR

Stimulus generalization

19

A differentiation between 2 similar stimuli when only one is associated w the uncond stimulus. Being able to depict the duplicate one

Stimulus discrimination

20

The association between a novel taste and getting sick. This association is difficult to establish with light or sound.

conditioned taste aversion

21

Through ?? we are able to quickly detect the snakes instead of the flowers

Biological Preparedness

22

an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation. according to classical conditioning ? develop through the generalization of a fear experience. Bit by bee now afraid of all flying insects.

phobia

23

Animals can be classically conditioned to fear neutral objects. One interesting response here is ? we are the among the many species that respond to fear this way.

fear conditioning


freezing

24

The "Little Albert" experiment from Watson showed how the ? smashing sound led to a ? fear response.

US


UR

25

?? can cause people to learn to fear initially neutral objects

Class Condi

26

For heroin addicts the sight of a needle and the feeling of it becomes a ?. With coffee drinkers the smell becomes a ?

Conditioned stimulus

27

People who are quitting their addiction may relapse or attain cravings because of people and places where their addiction would take place and this experience is known as ??

Conditioned Cravings

28

? occurs when a conditioned stimulus becomes associated w an US and begins to elicit a conditioned response that is the response normally elicited the US

Conditioning

29

Animals are biologically prepared to make connections between stimuli that are potentially dangerous. This helps animals avoid dangers and it ??

facilitates survival

30

The ? dopamine is released in the brain after positive errors

neurotransmitter

31

...is only one kind of learning.
....requires that stimuli be presented close in time
...spontaneous recovery can explain why craving and relapse are so common in addiction
ex:two stimuli that occur close together in time are associated
ex the blocking effect prevents learning that a new stimulus signals an event

Classical conditioning

32

For Little Albert Watson wanted to ? the ? response to the rat which would have included showing the rat w/out making the loud sound

extinguish



conditioned

33

Sometimes our behavior is ? bc we want to attain something (certain grade). Meaning a certain behavior leads to a particular outcome called ??
word operant was chosen bc skinner stated that animals operate on their environments effects

instrumental



operant conditioning/instrumental conditioning

34

James Edward Thorndike used chickens then cats and placed them in a ?? where they were to figure out that pushing a lever or pulling a string granted freedom. Through this he developed a general theory of learning the ??? which concluded that any behavior lead to a satisfying state of affairs

puzzle box






law of effect

35

A stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated

reinforcer

36

Since It will take MUCH longer to get the puzzle box results when not having an animal confined (in a box) many use the process of ? in which reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior are taught This is a way to get animals to perform ordinary behaviors.

Shaping

37

According to ? bad luck will come your way if a black cat crosses your path

superstitions

38

The administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated

positive reinforcement

39

The removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated

negative reinforcement

40

A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs

continuous reinforcement

41

A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently

partian reinforcement

42

a cat learning to perform "feed me" behaviors right before feedings is called

fixed interval schedule

43

When you know a reinforcement will be provided after the passing of time you just don't know how long
ex checking phone for text messages

variable interval schedule

44

When reinforcement is provided after a certain number of responses have been made

fixed ratio schedule

45

When reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable number of responses

variable ration schedule

46

The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continous reinforcement

partial reinforcement extinction effect

47

the removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
ex lever is pressed and delivers a shock

negative punishment

48

is the use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behavior and replace them with desirable ones

behavior modification

49

a visual spatial mental representation of an environment

cognitive map

50

When the rats in Edward Tolman's experiment developed a ?? to figure out how to escape the maze to get to the food

cognitive map

51

?? means learning that takes place without reinforcement.
ex when people first drive they don't need to know that rotating the steering wheel will turn the car

latent learning

52

4 schedules of reinforcement have been identified.
1. ? ratio
2. ? ratio
3. ? interval
4. ? interval

variable




fixed


variable




fixed

53

The ? doll experiment and the preschool children carried out by Bandura basic proved that ? may encourage them to act aggressively
Children can acquire behaviors through observtion

bobo





violence

54

Imitation of observed behavior. We model those who are attractive, of high status, and similar to ourselves. We only ? things that we are physically capable of doing.

modeling





model

55

Through ?? people learn about an action's consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action.

vicarious learning

56

Exposing young children to violence will ? them and may increase the chance of them performing a violent act.
The problem is not just violence but the way it is portrayed in media and the way it is greatly misrepresented as "not that bad".

desensitize

57

Fear can be learned through

obervation

58

Simply by observing a particular stimuli an individual will learn to ? that stimuli explaining how social forces playing an important role in the learning of ?

fear



fear

59

When you watch someone engage in an action ?? (known as ?? in your brain become activate) are firing in that person's brain and in your brain. We sometimes feel the pain when we watch someone experience it.

mirror neurons




mirror neurons

60

The activation of these is when we see someone else performing a goal oriented behavior

mirror neurons