Flashcards in Ch.6 Deck (60):
Is a relatively enduring change in behavior resulting from experience
A newborn according to John Locke is a ?? meaning born knowing nothing
According to John Watson ?? was the only valid indicator of psychological activity?
There are 3 types of learning
1. ?- learning about a stimulus such as sight or sound, in the external world.
2. ?- learning the relationship between 2 pieces of information. Also includes classical and operant conditioning. The linking of 2 events that happen one after another.
3. ?- Learning by watching how others behave
A decreased in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus
An increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus. Threatening/Painful stimuli are the kind of stimuli that lead to this.
The non associative learning process includes ?? being the simple forms of learning.
habituation and sensitization
What types of learning are these?
1. After watching her clean you do the same and clean.
2. Every time your roommate sleeps you cook.
3. Since it is Mon you know you get free lunch.
4. You tune your lil bro as he talks nonstop.
The process that connects the environmental stimuli to behavior. An associative learning in which neural stimulus elicits a response. When we learn that another stimulus predicts another stimulus.
1. ex: ivav pavlov studied salivation in dogs
also known as Pavlovian conditioning
When we learn that a behavior leads to a certain outcome.
ex: bf skinner did not believe in subjective states
ex: behavior modification can change undesirable behaviors
ex a behavior is associate w its consequences
The salivation elicited by food was the. It is a response that doesn't need to be learned it's a reflex
unconditioned response UR
Pavlov called the salivation elicited by food the. A stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning.
unconditioned response UR
Bc the clicking of the metronome produces salivation after training this is called the ??. It only elicits a response after learning takes place.
The learned association of the metronome a conditioned stimulus and the food an unconditioned stimulus is called ?
Learning that the metronome and food occur together in time making them a bond is ?
When the metronome is presented several times and food is not presented leading the animal's salivary response to stop is known as ?
Then out of no where the metronome is presented after extinction and the dog's response salivation this is know as ??
?? occurs when stimuli similar to the CS produces the CR
A differentiation between 2 similar stimuli when only one is associated w the uncond stimulus. Being able to depict the duplicate one
The association between a novel taste and getting sick. This association is difficult to establish with light or sound.
conditioned taste aversion
Through ?? we are able to quickly detect the snakes instead of the flowers
an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation. according to classical conditioning ? develop through the generalization of a fear experience. Bit by bee now afraid of all flying insects.
Animals can be classically conditioned to fear neutral objects. One interesting response here is ? we are the among the many species that respond to fear this way.
The "Little Albert" experiment from Watson showed how the ? smashing sound led to a ? fear response.
?? can cause people to learn to fear initially neutral objects
For heroin addicts the sight of a needle and the feeling of it becomes a ?. With coffee drinkers the smell becomes a ?
People who are quitting their addiction may relapse or attain cravings because of people and places where their addiction would take place and this experience is known as ??
? occurs when a conditioned stimulus becomes associated w an US and begins to elicit a conditioned response that is the response normally elicited the US
Animals are biologically prepared to make connections between stimuli that are potentially dangerous. This helps animals avoid dangers and it ??
The ? dopamine is released in the brain after positive errors
...is only one kind of learning.
....requires that stimuli be presented close in time
...spontaneous recovery can explain why craving and relapse are so common in addiction
ex:two stimuli that occur close together in time are associated
ex the blocking effect prevents learning that a new stimulus signals an event
For Little Albert Watson wanted to ? the ? response to the rat which would have included showing the rat w/out making the loud sound
Sometimes our behavior is ? bc we want to attain something (certain grade). Meaning a certain behavior leads to a particular outcome called ??
word operant was chosen bc skinner stated that animals operate on their environments effects
operant conditioning/instrumental conditioning
James Edward Thorndike used chickens then cats and placed them in a ?? where they were to figure out that pushing a lever or pulling a string granted freedom. Through this he developed a general theory of learning the ??? which concluded that any behavior lead to a satisfying state of affairs
law of effect
A stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
Since It will take MUCH longer to get the puzzle box results when not having an animal confined (in a box) many use the process of ? in which reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior are taught This is a way to get animals to perform ordinary behaviors.
According to ? bad luck will come your way if a black cat crosses your path
The administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated
The removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated
A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently
a cat learning to perform "feed me" behaviors right before feedings is called
fixed interval schedule
When you know a reinforcement will be provided after the passing of time you just don't know how long
ex checking phone for text messages
variable interval schedule
When reinforcement is provided after a certain number of responses have been made
fixed ratio schedule
When reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable number of responses
variable ration schedule
The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continous reinforcement
partial reinforcement extinction effect
the removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
ex lever is pressed and delivers a shock
is the use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behavior and replace them with desirable ones
a visual spatial mental representation of an environment
When the rats in Edward Tolman's experiment developed a ?? to figure out how to escape the maze to get to the food
?? means learning that takes place without reinforcement.
ex when people first drive they don't need to know that rotating the steering wheel will turn the car
4 schedules of reinforcement have been identified.
1. ? ratio
2. ? ratio
3. ? interval
4. ? interval
The ? doll experiment and the preschool children carried out by Bandura basic proved that ? may encourage them to act aggressively
Children can acquire behaviors through observtion
Imitation of observed behavior. We model those who are attractive, of high status, and similar to ourselves. We only ? things that we are physically capable of doing.
Through ?? people learn about an action's consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action.
Exposing young children to violence will ? them and may increase the chance of them performing a violent act.
The problem is not just violence but the way it is portrayed in media and the way it is greatly misrepresented as "not that bad".
Fear can be learned through
Simply by observing a particular stimuli an individual will learn to ? that stimuli explaining how social forces playing an important role in the learning of ?
When you watch someone engage in an action ?? (known as ?? in your brain become activate) are firing in that person's brain and in your brain. We sometimes feel the pain when we watch someone experience it.