Ch6 Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch6 Part 2 Deck (79):
1

Psychophysiological disorders are
A) physical disorder that has a string psychological basis or component

B) disorders involving physical symptoms or complaints that have no physiological basis; believed to occur due to an underlying psychological conflict or need

C) chronic complaints of specific bodily symptoms that have no physical basis

D) impairments in sensory or motor functioning controlled by the voluntary nervous system that suggest a neurological disorder but with no underlying medical cause

A

2

Functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder) is
A) physical disorder that has a string psychological basis or component

B) disorders involving physical symptoms or complaints that have no physiological basis; believed to occur due to an underlying psychological conflict or need

C) chronic complaints of specific bodily symptoms that have no physical basis

D) impairments in sensory or motor functioning controlled by the voluntary nervous system that suggest a neurological disorder but with no underlying medical cause

D

3

Complex somatic symptom disorders are
A) physical disorder that has a string psychological basis or component

B) disorders involving physical symptoms or complaints that have no physiological basis; believed to occur due to an underlying psychological conflict or need

C) chronic complaints of specific bodily symptoms that have no physical basis

D) impairments in sensory or motor functioning controlled by the voluntary nervous system that suggest a neurological disorder but with no underlying medical cause

B

4

Complex somatic symptom disorder with somatization features is
A) physical disorder that has a string psychological basis or component

B) disorders involving physical symptoms or complaints that have no physiological basis; believed to occur due to an underlying psychological conflict or need

C) chronic complaints of specific bodily symptoms that have no physical basis

D) impairments in sensory or motor functioning controlled by the voluntary nervous system that suggest a neurological disorder but with no underlying medical cause

C

5

Which of the following is NOT a psychophysiological disorder?
A) coronary heart disease
B) hypertension
C) headaches
D) hysteria

D

6

What are the 4 most prevalent psychophysiological disorders?

1. Coronary heart disease
2. Hypertension
3. Headache
4. Asthma

7

Involves the narrowing of cardiac arteries, resulting in the restriction or partial blockage of the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart
A) hypertension
B) coronary heart disease
C) asthma
D) headache

B

8

What percent of Americans have CHD?
A) 15.5%
B) 10.7%
C) 7.9%
D) 5.4%

C

9

A chronic condition characterized by blood pressure of 140 (systolic) over 90 (diastolic) or higher
A) coronary heart disease
B) hypertension
C) asthma
D) headache

B

10

What percent of people have prehypertension?
A) 44%
B) 15%
C) 32%
D) 28%

D

11

What percent of people are unaware that they have hypertension?
A) 44%
B) 30%
C) 25%
D) 50%

B

12

What percent of people have not been treated for their hypertension?
A) 40%
B) 30%
C) 28%
D) 13%

A

13

Hypertension is most prevalent in which population?
A) Caucasian
B) Hispanic
C) Africa American
D) Chinese

C

14

What percent of cases is the cause for hypertension unknown?
A) 40-45%
B) 65-75%
C) 25-30%
D) 90-95%

D

15

What are the 3 different types of headaches?

1. Tension headache
2. Cluster headache
3. Migraine headache

16

True or False: a person can be susceptible to all 3 different types of headaches

True

17

What are the 2 conditions that can induce a headache?

Lack of food and exposure to stress that causes negative emotions

18

A migraine headache is...
A) produced by prolonged contractions of the scalp and neck muscles

B) produced by construction of the cranial arteries followed by dilation of the cerebral blood vessels

C) excruciating stabbing or burning sensation located in the eye or cheek

B

19

A cluster headache is...
A) produced by prolonged contractions of the scalp and neck muscles

B) produced by construction of the cranial arteries followed by dilation of the cerebral blood vessels

C) excruciating stabbing or burning sensation located in the eye or cheek

C

20

A tension headache is...
A) produced by prolonged contractions of the scalp and neck muscles

B) produced by construction of the cranial arteries followed by dilation of the cerebral blood vessels

C) excruciating stabbing or burning sensation located in the eye or cheek

A

21

True or False: anything that can affect the size of cerebral blood vessels produces a headache

True

22

MSG, tyrimine, and sodium nitrate are chemicals which cause which type of headache?
A) migraine headaches
B) tension headaches
C) cluster headaches

A

23

True or False: migraines can last from a few hours to several days

True

24

True or False: migraines are often accompanied by nausea and vomiting

True

25

The most common form of headache is...
A) migraine
B) tension
C) cluster

B

26

What percent of children have tension headaches?
A) 50%
B) 31%
C) 20%
D) 5%

B

27

This headache is preceded by an aura or sensations such as tingling and seeing flashes of light.
A) migraine
B) tension
C) cluster

C

28

True or False: a cycle for cluster headaches can last for a few hours to several days.

False; that is for migraine headaches. Cluster headache cycles last for several days to months

29

What percent of cluster headaches are chronic?
A) 25-30%
B) 10-20%
C) 1-10%
D) 23-25%

B

30

True or False: cluster headaches are hereditary

False

31

Which type of headache is often hereditary?
A) tension
B) cluster
C) migraine

C

32

Which headache type is most common in females?
A) tension
B) cluster
C) migraine

A

33

Which type of headache is most common in males?
A) tension
B) cluster
C) migraine

B

34

Which type of headache is most common in young women?
A) tension
B) cluster
C) migraine

C

35

This type of headache lasts from hours to 4 days.
A) tension
B) cluster
C) migraine

C

36

This type of headache lasts for hours to days.
A) tension
B) cluster
C) migraine

A

37

This type of headache usually lasts less than an hour.
A) tension
B) cluster
C) migraine

B

38

Chronic inflammatory disease if the airways in the lungs
A) bronchitis
B) coronary artery disease
C) asthma
D) hypertension

C

39

What percent of people have asthma?
A) 8.2%
B) 20%
C) 5.7%
D) 15%

A

40

True or False: teens with asthma are twice as likely to commit suicide than those without the illness

True

41

What has the highest association with emergency room treatment or hospitalization for asthma?
A) air pollution
B) allergens
C) cockroaches
D) all the above

C

42

True or False: stress, itself, causes infection

False; it decreases the immune systems efficiency

43

This cell creates an immune response when infected
A) B cells
B) T cells
C) natural killer cells
D) phagocytes

B

44

This type of cell kills tumor or virus-infected cells
A) B cells
B) T cells
C) natural killer cells
D) phagocytes

C

45

This type of cell responds to infection by ingesting harmful cells
A) B cells
B) T cells
C) natural killer cells
D) phagocytes

D

46

True or False: stress produces physiological changes in the body, but does not cause infection

True

47

True or False: optimism increase ones immunity

True

48

This hormone maintains homeostasis
A) cortisol
B) norepinephrine
C) epinephrine
D) antidiuretic hormone

A

49

True or False: stress, emotional difficulties, or personality characteristics increase the risk of developing cancer

True; certain emotions and stressors have been associated with decreases in immune system functioning which can facilitate cancer

50

True or False: the connection between stress and naturally occurring cancers have been demonstrated

False

51

True or False: everyone who faces stressful events develops a psychophysiological disorder or shows reduced immune functioning.

False

52

Stressors...
A) appear to cause infections
B) are characterized by anxiety, dissociative symptoms
C) dysregulate the HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system
D) all of the above

C

53

True or False: brief exposure to stress enhances immune functioning

True

54

Increased _____ activity is caused by stressors. This increased activity increases _____ in the body which contributes to an increased risk of ____.
A) amygdala; epinephrine; CHD
B) hippocampus; norepinephrine; hypertension
C) HPA axis; Catecholamines; PTSD
D) HPA axis; cortisol; CHD

D

55

True or False: there is no genetic factor for the development of asthma

False

56

True or False: genetics plays a role in psychophysiological disorders

True

57

If one parent has asthma, a child has ____ chance of developing asthma
A) 7 out of 10
B) 1 out of 5
C) 1 out of 3
D) 5 out 10

C

58

If both parents have asthma, the chances increase to _____ for children
A) 7 out of 10
B) 1 out of 5
C) 1 out of 3
D) 5 out 10

A

59

What is the precise mechanism for migraines headaches?
A) dysregulation of the
HPA axis
B) negative cognitions
C) genetics
D) it's unknown

D

60

True or False: negative moods and positive moods do not affect the stress response

False; negative mood increases stress response and positive mood decreases stress response

61

____ is a characteristic that protects people from the harmful effect of stressors
A) control
B) commitment
C) hardiness
D) positivity

C

62

What makes up "hardiness" the characteristic that protects people from stressors?
A) control, intolerance of uncertainty, challenge
B) commitment, positivity, joy
C) challenge, control, positivity
D) commitment, control, challenge

D

63

True or False: high levels of control are associated with lower levels of stress

True

64

Those with high optimism have what percent lower chance of developing heart disease?
A) 20%
B) 45%
C) 9%
D) 15%

C

65

People with higher optimism have ___% lower risk of dying while those who are less optimistic are ___% more likely to die.
A) 20%; 30%
B) 9%; 16%
C) 14%; 20%
D) there is no difference

B

66

True or False: CHD risk is elevated if one has a negative emotional state

True

67

True or False: hostile people can combat the increases in physiological activity due to stress by having high-quality relationships

True

68

True or False: hostile people who have high-quality relationships have reduced physiological reactivity to stress

True

69

For women only, loneliness increases the risk of CHD risk by __ %.
A) 80%
B) 50%
C) 5%
D) loneliness does not increase CHD risk

A

70

True or False: stress-management techniques cure illnesses related to stressors such as CHD, hypertension, asthma, and headaches.

False; helps but does not cure illness

71

What are the 2 main psychological approaches that treat psychophysiological disorders?

1. Stress management
2. Anxiety management

Includes biofeedback and relaxation training

72

Relaxation training is..
A) a therapeutic technique in which a person acquires the ability to relax the muscles of the body in almost any circumstance

B) a physiological and behavioral approach in which an individual receives information regarding particular autonomic functions and is rewarded for influencing those functions in a desired direction

C) utilizing role-playing situations and learning to relax muscles

D) changing negative cognitions into more positive cognitions

A

73

Biofeedback training is..
A) a therapeutic technique in which a person acquires the ability to relax the muscles of the body in almost any circumstance

B) a physiological and behavioral approach in which an individual receives information regarding particular autonomic functions and is rewarded for influencing those functions in a desired direction

C) utilizing role-playing situations and learning to relax muscles

D) changing negative cognitions into more positive cognitions

B

74

This reduces the fight/flight response.
A) relaxation training
B) biofeedback training
C) cognitive-behavioral interventions
D) medications

A

75

Going through muscle groups tensing them and then relaxing them is
A) relaxation training
B) biofeedback training
C) cognitive-behavioral interventions
D) medications

A

76

Client taught to voluntarily control physiological functions such as heart rate and blood pressure
A) relaxation training
B) biofeedback training
C) cognitive-behavioral interventions
D) medications

B

77

This helps a patient control physiological functions
A) relaxation training
B) biofeedback training
C) cognitive-behavioral interventions
D) medications

B

78

True or False: psychophysiological disorders involve actual tissue damage, a disease process, or physiological dysfunction

True

79

What are the biological explanations for the cause of psychophysiological disorders?

1. Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system
2. Genetics