Ch7: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch7: Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity Deck (129)
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1

What are allergens?

Things that the immune system develops an over-active response to

2

What are 4 common sources of allergens?

1. inhaled materials
2. injected materials
3. ingested material
4. contacted materials

3

How many types of hypersensitivity are there?

4

4

Name of each hypersensitivity reaction?

1. Type I: Immediate Hypersensitivity
2. Type II: Antibody-mediated diseases
3. Type III: Immune complex mediated diseases
4. Type IV: T cell mediated diseases

5

What are the steps of Type I Hypersensitivity's sensitization?

1. Allergens taken up by APC's
2. Proteins degraded
3. Peptides presented as peptide:MHC to specific T cells
4. Th2 cells then produce cytokines to isotype switch to IgE
5. IgE binds to Fc-epsilon-RI receptors on Mast cells
6. Repeat exposure of allergen causes activation of mast cell and release of mediators

6

Two kinds of mediators that mast cells release?

1. Vasoactive amines and lipid mediators immediately after repeat exposure
2. Cytokines released hours later

7

Does IgE need antigen to bind and coat mast cells?

No

8

Basophils and mast cells are very similar but differ in what terms?

Mast cells: tissues
Basophils: Blood

9

5 main classes of products released by mast cells and which are prestored?

1. enzymes (prestored)
2. toxic mediators (prestored)
3. cytokines (TNF-alpha only prestored)
4. chemokines
5. lipid mediators

10

Effect of enzymes released by mast cells?

Remodeling of CT matrix

11

Two main toxic mediators released by mast cells?

Histamine and heparin

12

Function of histamine and heparin release?

1. Toxic to parasites
2. leaky vessels
3. Smooth muscle contraction

13

Function of mast cell TNF alpha? 3

1. promotes inflammation
2. stimulates cytokine production
3. activates endothelium

14

Function of IL4 and IL13 release

Stimulate and amplify TH2 cell response

15

Function of IL3, IL5, and GM-CSF release?

Promote eosinophil production and activation

16

Function of CCL-13 release of mast cells?

Chemotactic for phagocytes

17

Function of leukotriene release of mast cells?

1. Smooth muscle contractin
2. Increase vessel leakiness
3. Cause mucus secretion

18

Function of platelet activating factor

1. Chemotactic for leukocytes
2. Amplifies production of lipid mediators
3. Activates neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets

19

Function of prostaglandins?

Vascular dilation

20

Function of vasoactive amines?

Vascular dilation
Smooth muscle contraction

21

IMmediate Phase Type I hypersensitivity involves what cells?

Mast

22

Late phase Type I hypersensitivity involves what cells?

Eosinophils

23

What causes the wheal and flare of a Type I reaction?

Mast cell degranulation

24

Late-phase reaction occurs 6-8 hours later because of what?

Leukotrienes, chemokines, cytokines synthesized by mast cells

25

Degranulation in GI tract of Type I causes what?2

Diarrhea and vomiting

26

Degranulation in Airways causes what? 2

Phlegm and coughing

27

Degranulation in blood vessels causes what? 3

Edema
Inflammation
Increased lymph flow

28

Treatment for Type I involves what?

Block effects of inflammatory mediators (histamine and leukotrienes)
Can't stop the cause: IgE crosslinking

29

When allergen is in skin, what results? (2)

1. urticaria
2. angioedema

30

Where do recruited eosinophils go in Type I?

To the lung