Ch.8 Basic Biomechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.8 Basic Biomechanics Deck (30):
1

Center of gravity

Balance point of an object at which torque on all sides is equal. It is also the point at which the planes of the body intersect

2

Base of support

Part of the body that is in contact with the supporting surface

3

Stable equilibrium

When an object is in a position where disturbing it would require it's COG to be raised

4

Unstable equilibrium

Occurs when only a slight force is needed to disturb an object

5

Neutral equilibrium

Exists when an object's COG is neither raided nor lowered when it is disturbed (ball)

6

Torque

The tendency of force to produce rotation around an axis (rotary force)

7

Lever

It is rigid and can rotate around a fixed point when a force is applied

8

Force arm

The distance between the force and the axis

9

Resistance arm

The distance between the resistance and the axis

10

First class lever

FAR

11

Second class lever

ARF

12

Third class lever

AFR

13

Moment arm (torque arm)

The perpendicular distance between the muscles line of pull and the center of the joint

14

Stabilizing force

All of the force generated bf muscle is directed back into the joint, pulling the two bones together

15

Angular force

Most of the force generated by the muscle is directed at rotating, not stabilizing the joint

16

Force couple

Occurs when two or more forces act in different directions, resulting in a turning effect

17

Parallel forces

Occur in the same plane and in the same or opposite direction

18

Concurrent forces

Two or more forces must act on a common point but must pull or push in different directions

19

Linear forces

When two or more forces are acting along the same line

20

Law of inertia

When an object is at rest, it tends to stay at rest and when an object is in motion, it tends to stay in motion

21

Law of acceleration

The amount of acceleration depends on the strength of the force applied to an object

22

Law of action-reaction

For every action there is an equal and an opposite reaction

23

Friction

Is a force developed by two forces, which tends to prevent motion of one surface across another

24

Inertia

The property of matter that causes it to resist any change of its motion in either speed or direction

25

Vector

Quantity having both magnitude and direction

26

Biomechanics

Involves taking the principles and methods of mechanics and applying them to the structure and function of the human body

27

Statics

Deals with factors associated with nonmoving systems

28

Dynamics

Involves factors associated with moving systems and can be divided into kinetics and kinematics

29

Kinetics

Deals with forces causing movement in a system

30

Kinematics

Involves the time, space, and mass aspects of a moving system