Flashcards in Ch9&10 Test Deck (23):
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
Sugar, Phosphate, and Bases
Parts and structure of a DNA molecule`
DNA is made of two strands of nucleotides that form a double helix.
Adenine and Guanine
Thymine and Cytosine
Contributions made by Chargraff
He discover that DNA is the primary constituent of the gene.
Contributions made by Crick and Watson
Discovered the structure of DNA
Contributions by Franklin
She took the picture of DNA that Crick and Watson used to find the structure of DNA
Base pair rules for DNA
A with T, C with G
Base pair rules RNA
Thymine with adenine, adenine with uracil, cytosine with guanine
Steps of the the DNA replication process
1. DNA split by helicase.
2. DNA is held apart by replication fork.
3. DNA polymerase adds the complementary nucleotides to the strands.
What does DNA polymerase do?
Adds the complementary nucleotides to the DNA and acts as a "spell-checker" for errors in replication.
Steps of Transcription
1. RNA polymerase binds to that "gene promoter" which signals where to begin copying.
2. RNA polymerase unwinds the double helix and separates the strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the strands.
3. RNA polymerase adds and bonds together complementary RNA nucleotides.
4.RNA polymerase comes to the "stop" signal. The RNA leaves the DNA.
5. The DNA reforms back into the double helix.
Role of Codons in the formation of Amino acids
Codons are groups of three bases and the amino acids are identified by codons.
Steps of Translation
1. mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to ribosomes.
2. The nitrogen bases on the mRNA are read in groups of three called "codons".
3. Finds the start "codon"(will either be AVG or Methionine)
Unwinds double helix and separates the strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds.
What is a Codon?
Group of three bases
What is mRNA?
Messenger RNA that takes information from DNA and brings it to ribosomes.
DNA turned into RNA
Where ribosomes create protien
Opposite of codon (needs more info)
What is tRNA
Transfer RNA, brings amino acids to the ribosomes to be made into proteins.
How many bonds between cytosine and guanine?