How many countries are competing for political sovereignty over the North Pole?
Russia, Canada, USA, Denmark and Norway
How have Russia tried to claim political sovereignty over the North Pole?
Planted a flag at the bottom of the sea and implemented military surveillance
How has the UN inputted in politics of the North Pole?
- makes decisions on international waters but the NP isn’t land it’s floating ice
- UN Convention of laws of the sea has allowed Denmark to take part ownership
How far into the sea can a country claim ownership?
200 nautical miles known as the ‘Exclusion Economic Zone’
Why does Greenland own part of the Arctic Circle?
It governs part of Denmark and so controls 9 hundred-thousand miles squared of the Arctic Circle
How is Canada controlling the Arctic Circle?
They conduct military exercise
Why is the Arctic so desirable?
- Shipping lanes due to melting ice
- Contains 13% of the world’s oil supply and 25% of its gas
What two countries have approved continental claims?
Iceland and Norway
How much would extraction cost?
In Saudi Arabia extraction per barrel costs $2 but in the Arctic Circle extraction would cost $37 but changing costs could make it feasible in the future
How much of the world’s trade is counterfeit goods?
Why are some TNCs reluctant to invest in China?
- Lack of action by governing authorities that means there is less respect for international law
- This limits possibility of trade agreements
- UN estimated that 70% of counterfeit goods are Chinese and they refused to sign Anti-Counterfeit Trade Agreement (32 countries signed)
Give an example of Chinese counterfeited goods
Chinese copying design of Western cars e.g. replacing Porsche logo with a ‘Z’ in the middle in a different brand name but same design of car
Who sorts out intellectual property issues?
World Intellectual Property Organisation (UN) since 1967
Why has the UN WIPO been criticised?
- Users have to pay fees (cost to LEDCs)
- No duty to make invention available
- Creates monopoly power
What is meant by spheres of influence?
The claim by a state to exclusively or predominantly control a foreign state
Former communist states of (1) changed alliance to (2) so (3) wants to regain power. The EU and US applied (4) sanctions following the 2014 (5) crisis which has isolated (6) as (7) exports are no longer accessible to them
1 - East Europe 2 - EU 3 - Putin 4 - Economic 5 - Ukraine/ Crimea 6 - Russia 7 - EU
What territorial dispute is significant over the South China Sea?
- Senaku Islands (Japanese since 1895 but China bought 3 from a private owner)
- Beijing claims 90% of ocean covering Paracel islands due to billions of oil barrels (dispute with Philippines. Brunei, Malaysia and Vietnam)
- 30% of world trade passes through
- Philippines pay some people to live on the Spratly islands
- 2016 - China installed launch batteries for air missiles from Paracel islands
Why have the West been accused of unfair relations with developing nations?
- Trade terms
- Brain drain
- Control of wealthy elites
indirect control e.g. conditions of aid, loans and/or military support
Why is China investing in Africa?
- Infrastructure investments ensure China can export raw materials
- Skilled jobs filled by Chinese migrants (20k in 2014)
- 2015: China became Africa’s largest trading partner which led to $60 billion in FDI
How does Africa benefit from Chinese investment?
- Vital jobs created in industry and energy to modernise economy
- Chinese factories and mines bring modern technology
- Chinese finance funded 17 major HEP dams to add nearly 7,000MW of electricity by 2013
What disadvantages do Africa have from Chinese investment?
- Cheap Chinese imports make many local producers out of business
- Much of FDI bring temporary jobs
- Ethiopia’s leather industry creating a lot of pollution
What’s significant about Chinese investment in Mozambique?
- Could be the world’s fourth largest producer of gas
- Civil war made extraction too expensive
- China created and SEZ and bought a stake in ‘Videocon’ exploring gas reserves
- Railway opened for economic activity in Beira
Describe the 2012 McKinsey Global Institute report
By 2025, the 600 cities with the highest GDP will generate 65% of the economic growth, 440 of these will be in emerging nations
- Cleared (1) debt in Cameroon
- (2) experts to help locals in Gabon
- Deal to supply (3) fruit to China
- Sudan: sales of (4) but criticised for not using its leverage to solve (5)
1 - $100 million 2 - Agricultural 3 - South African 4 - Military hardware 5 - civil war
- Road building programme in (1)
- $5.8 bn no strings attached loans in (2)
- Investment in Zambian (3)
- Economic aid in Zimbabwe to avoid Western pressure for (4)
1 - Ethiopia
2 - Angola
3 - copper mines
4 - political reform
- Aid and (1) in Mozambique
- (2)% share in offshore oil block in (3)
- $(4) aid to build schools, hospitals and scholarships to study in China, given in (5)
1 - debt relief 2 - 45 3 - Nigeria 4 - 5 million 5 - Liberia
Why is there growing tension in Taiwan?
- Retreat of (1) following civil war
- No (2) treaty signed
- Communists claim Taiwan to be a (3) province
1 - Capitalist Republic of China
2 - Peace
3 - Chinese
Why is there growing tension in Tibet?
- People seeking (1) from China
- Beijing gov accusing those of being rebellious to (2)
- China raised tensions by (3)
1 - Political separation
2 - religion and culture
3 - encouraging migration and high speed rail
Why is there growing tension in Japan?
- Extensive (1)
- Worsened after WW2 when Japan showed alliance with (2) instead of China during (3)
- Heavy investment from (4) for post-war recovery and so Japan adopted (5)
1 - trade 2 - USA 3 - civil war 4 - USA 5 - Capitalism
Why is there growing tension in India?
- (1) disputes
- (2) presence of India and China over the (3)
- Interest in (4) Sea
1 - Historical border
2 - Military
3 - Himalayas
4 - South China
What political tension is there in the Middle East?
65% of the world’s crude oil exports in the region
Why is there economic tension in the Middle East?
Many youthful population without employment and low education so disaffected adults is a high risk
What cultural tension is there in the Middle East?
Most religion is Islam but this is causing conflict with extremists in Saudi Arabia, UAE and Iran sects
Why is there environmental tension in the Middle East?
Territorial over water for irrigation
- (1) largest national market
- population of (2)
- GDPpc is small but growth rate of (3) which is higher than China
- Democracy but sometimes violent, makes it easier to hold politicians account and counter (4)
1 - 3rd
2 - 1.2 billion
3 - 7.5%
4 - corruption
- Prime minister from 2004-2014 dismantled (1) economy through privatisation
- High economic growth allowed investment in (2)
- Largest aid donor to (3)
- Support by USA for (4)
- Looks for relations with (5) rather than Russia
1 - state-controlled 2 - road infrastructure 3 - Afghanistan 4 - Nuclear reactors 5 - Israel
- A BRICS country and member of the (1)
- Seeking permanent membership in the (2) supported by the UK
- Emerging middle class makes it a global (3)
- Many workers are entrepreneurial and aged (4) many of whom speak (5)
1 - Commonwealth 2 - UN 3 - Emerging market 4 - Under 25 5 - Fluent English
- Indian (1) across the globe
- Bollywood sold (2) tickets in 2014 compared to 2.6 billion for Hollywood
- Tourism contributed (3)% of GDP
- Democratic could balance (4) China
- First Asian nation to (5) by investment into space programme
1 - diaspora 2 - 3.6 billion 3 - 6 4 - Autocratic 5 - put a satellite into orbit around Mars
How is China’s demand for resources causing environmental damage across the world?
Accounted for 90% of growth in global sea traffic
When do commodity prices peak?
At the peak of China’s growth during 2008-2010 e.g. copper doubled in price in 12 months, as China’s growth has slowed, prices have dropped due to lower demand
What has China done to secure the price of fluctuating commodities?
Buying companies over seas e.g. Sub-Saharan Africa for copper and iron ore
What is the water scarcity situation in China?
- Average freshwater resources are 2k tonnes per capita which is two times the UN definition of water scarcity
- 70% to farming and 20% to coal industry both in the North
- Beijing: consumption exceeded supply by 70% in 2012
- (1)% of households without electric
- Large reservoir of (2)
- (3) families cook on biofuels
- Trump pulled out of (4) agreement so MEDCs could do more to reduce emissions as they used fossil fuels to (5)
1 - 30 2 - coal 3 - 700 million 4 - Paris 5 - emissions
How are China reducing emissions?
Current domination decides any climate change treaties but only committed in 2016 to reduce emissions by 2030
How are the USA reducing emissions?
Wind power tripled from 2005 - 2015
Solar energy x10
Obama for incentives but Trump opposes Climate Change theory
How are the EU reducing emissions?
Incentives e.g. carbon trading and grants for renewable energy
1997-2010 reduced consumption by 12%
How is Russia reducing emissions?
2015: 35% less emissions than in 1990 due to economic collapse of SU and agreed to Paris Agreement
Why are environmentalists concerned about the global middle class?
Meat consumption increased 99%
What are the impacts of increased mobile phone use in China?
- Over 1 billion have a phone
- Crude oil to make plastic
- Nickel for metal in short supply
- Mercury for phone supplies is non-renewable
What food pressures are created by the middle class?
- Without new land, prices could increase
- pressure in emerging economies result from nutritional transition and demand for new food types
- land once used for staple food grains converted to meat and dairy
What water pressures are created by the middle class?
- Water supply problems
- E.g. India predicted to have 60% water scarcity by 2030
What energy problems are created by the middle class?
- 2015: Oil demand 95 million barrels a day
- Meeting demand increases prices and reduces supply
- Countries with their own supply have more leverage to dominate e.g. Russia
- By 2030, demand likely to rise by 30%
What resources problems are created by the middle class?
- Lithium based batteries demand is very high
- Basic metals at risk of short supply and dramatic price change
- Increasing demand for rare-earth materials
Challenges to EU:
- Debt in the Eurozone amounted to (1)% of GDP
- Energy security relies on imports from (2)
- Increasing tensions e.g. (3) want deeper union but (4) want less
1 - 90
2 - Russia
3 - Germany
4 - UK
Challenges to EU:
- The USA is ageing slower than the EU, pensions and (1) tend be borne by the individual rather than (2)
- Workforce will drop by (3)% by 2030
- By 2025, (4)% of EU citizens will be over the age of 65
1 - social costs
2 - government
3 - 14
4 - 20
Challenges to the EU:
- Unemployment close to (1)% in 2016
Challenges to the USA:
- Increasingly energy secure due to (1)
- National debt in 2016 was (2) but its status as (3) currency makes it less vulnerable to economic shocks
- (4)% of adults are overweight
1 - fracking
2 - $19 trillion
3 - global
4 - 74
Challenges to the USA:
- (1) relations are strained, nationally there is often political deadlock between (2)
- Estimated population of (3) in 2060
- (4)% of national GDP goes to healthcare
1 - race
2 - democrats and republicans
3 - 416 million
4 - 17
Name five ways of maintaining global military power
- Naval power
- Nuclear weapons
- Air power
- Intelligence services
- Space exploration
How can naval power maintain military power?
e. g. Falklands war, UK spent 4% of GDP on defence
- Large number of low-cost ships to have strength in numbers
- UK had only 6 ships of the best technology in 2016
How can nuclear weapons maintain military power?
- Deterrent against escalation of conflict
- Historically, may not be used (serious and terminal environmental damage
- Cost of upgrade £100-250 billion over 45-50 years e.g. UK replaced trident nuclear deterrent to 4 submarines carrying 16 missiles
How can air power maintain military power?
- Most expensive following nuclear
- Rapid response
- Defence budget decreasing
How can intelligence services maintain military power?
- Budgets greater towards terrorism
- Expensive to gain intelligence through media and tech surveillance
- Successful in uncovering plots
How can space exploration maintain military power?
- Only 7 countries committed to space missions
- Spending cuts in the West but cheaper for Asia to launch space flights
Name four economic problems on existing superpowers
- Economic restructuring
- Social costs
What debt problems are there in existing superpowers?
- Global recession in 2008
- Significant budget deficit in the UK
- Need to raise tax to pay off debt slows economy
- Geopolitical risk: rely on capital investment from emerging powers increases their political and economic power
What unemployment problems are there in existing superpowers?
- Increased manufacturing competition in emerging countries
- E.g. General Motors collapsed because its relied on an in-house supply chain rather than out sourcing
- E.g. Tata steel TNC from an emerging nation in a developed nation, secondary sector workers in Europe depend on abroad decisions
- 2008 recession caused a 5% increase in unemployment
What economic restructuring problems are there in existing superpowers?
- EU and USA forced to shift economies away from secondary sector towards tertiary and quaternary
- UK gov. report said that the UK was ranked 19/30 OECD countries for low skills and so was falling behind in development
What social costs are there in existing superpowers?
- Unemployment in disadvantaged areas causing a decaying living environment
- Said that this reduces gross motor development in children and limits social skill development
Why is the future power of the world unpredictable?
Number of ‘black swan’ events could occur altering countries’ influence e.g. war/ economic crisis