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Flashcards in Challenges of an Urbanising World Deck (79):

What is urbanisation?

Urbanisation is the increase in population of people living within a countries urban area's.
Cities in developed countries grew during the Industrial revolution --> workers lived in small terraces houses around the factories in the city.
When factories relocated to emerging countries - slums and apartment blocks increased around them to house workers.


Are megacities decreasing or increasing?

Increasing due to development in shops ect / Urbanisation - technology, ...


What are high rates of urbanisation leading to?

... to the growth of megacities.


What are megacities?

Cities with a population of over 10 million


What is urban primacy?

When once city dominates the country it is in. Primacy cities have much higher population than other cities. Usually more than twice as many people than the next biggest city


How do primacy cities influence the country economically?

Investments, Migration and Transport


What effects do investments have in primacy cities?

Businesses locate there. This attracts investment in infanstructure and services


Why is there migration in Primacy cities and what does it lead to?

There are lots of jobs available in primacy cities making people move to find work and get paid


How does transport influence primacy cities / countries economically?

International ports and airports are often located here so further investment AND migration is attracted and encouraged to invest


What political influences do primacy cities have?

Governments and the headquarters of large buisnesses


What does having governments and large business headquarters being located in primacy cities/countries lead to?

Decisions can be made to favour development in the city rather then the rest of the country


How has the level and rate of urbanisation change around the world from 2010 to 2020?

The level of urbanisation has increased and increasing around the world due to factors such as increase in technology and forms of accessible transport. Although this means that some businesses and people are able to move out of urban areas (eg, easier transport to get to the city from far), urbanisation is still increasing because of investments, migration, transport and other opportunities


How does urban primacy influence the country ?

Investment - businesses will locate here which attracts investments in i and


What is national migration?

When people move to a city in the same country (eg. country side to city)


What is international migration?

When people move from one country to a city in another country


What are push factors (in terms of urbanisation)?

Things that encourage people to leave an area


What are pull factors (in terms of urbanisation)?

Things that encourage people to move to the city


Name some push factors for migration

- A shortage of jobs or low wages
- Poor standard of living
- Poor healthcare and education
- War or conflict
- Natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, ...)
- A poor environment due to pollution or crime


Name some pull factors of migration

- More employment opportunities and higher wages
- Better standard of living
- Better health care and education
- A safe place with little crime or risk of natural disaster
- A cleaner environment


Economic change is causing cities in countries of different levels of development to grow or decline. Give 3 reasons why cities in DEVELOPING countries are growing...

1) rural areas are very poor - improvements in agriculture mean fewer farmers needed --> national migration as people need better jobs.
2) Some cities have good transport links so trade is focused there - providing lots of jobs
3) Some cities are attracting foreign companies and manufacturing industry is expanding


Economic change is causing cities in countries of different levels of development to grow or decline. Give 2 reasons why some cities in EMERGING counties are growing (and remaining stable)

Some cities become industrial centres - lots of manufacturing jobs. Other cities have rapidly expanding service sector (IT) - people move to city for work in new industries and services that support them


Economic change is causing cities in countries of different levels of development to grow or decline. Give 2 reasons why some cities in DEVELOPED countries have STABLE populations or DECLINING

1) De-industrialisation = decline of industrial areas as people move away to find work elsewhere. Some remain stable as they are regenerating and refurbished so attract people again

2) low skilled workers - eg. cleaners and factory-line workers are attracted to successful cities in the region --> decline of cities they are leaving


What are the two types of employment?

Formal and Informal


What is formal employment?

Officially registered. Workers are protected by laws of the country. (Often rules of how many hours people work, age and health/safety.


What is informal employment?

Unofficial work. Jobs aren't taxed or regulated by government. (People often work long hours in dangerous conditions for little pay)


What are the four different types of economic sectors?



What are PRIMARY economic sectors?

Involves COLLECTING raw materials - eg. Farming, fishing, mining


What are SECONDARY economic sectors?

MANUFACTURING. Involves turning a product (raw materials) into another product. Eg - making furniture, textiles, chemicals, steel and cars


What are TERTIARY economic sectors?

Involves providing a SERVICE. --> from financial services, nursing and retail to police force and transport.


What are QUATERNARY economic sectors?

INFORMATION economy. Eg - research and development (scientists researching products),(electronics and IT industry.) and consultancy (advising buisness)


What type of employment do people in DEVELOPING countries mainly consist of?

Many workers are employed in the informal sector


What type of employment do people in DEVELOPED countries mainly consist of?

Most are formally employed. Few workers in the informal sector.


What type of employment do people in EMERGING countries mainly consist of?

Mehh. Average 50/50 60/40. Number of workers in the informal sector decreases as the country develops


What are the working conditions in DEVELOPING counties?

Poor. Pay is low, hours are long and conditions can be dangerous


What are the working conditions like in EMERGING countries?

Conditions improve as workers rights increase


What are working conditions like in DEVELOPED countries?

Good. Pay is high, workers have many rights protected by law


What are the economic sectors of a DEVELOPING country?

Lots in low-skilled tertiary sector jobs (eg. Market stalls)

Few in secondary sector jobs - as theres not enough money to invest in the technology needed (eg factories)

Small % in high-skilled tertiary jobs (eg. government offices or IT


What are the economic sectors of EMERGING countries?

High employment in secondary sector - good infanstructure and established industrial zones

Lots in low-skilled tertiary jobs - (eg, retail or tourism)

As the industrial economy grows - more money to spend on services. - jobs created in higher-skilled jobs in the tertiary sector (eg. Medicine or law


What are the economic sectors of DEVELOPED countries?

Few people in secondary and primary.

Most in tertiary sector - as theres a skilled and educated work force and high demand in services like banks and shops

Some in quaternary sector - lot of highly skilled labour and money to invest in technology needed


Whats suburbanisation?

Movement of people from the middle of the city to the edges

When urban areas became overcrowded and polluted, suburban areas offered more open green spaces and seemed more family friendly.


What is de-industrialisation?

Manufacturing moving out of an area

Lead to depopulation


What is counter urbanisation?

Movement of people away from large urban areas to smaller settlements and rural areas.

Prices are often lower. People think theres better quality of life.
Increased car ownership and transport allows people to move out and still travel into the city regularly for work/education

Improved communication services makes it easier to move and work from home


What is regeneration?

Investing in new developments to Reverse the decline of urban areas because of suburbanisation, de-industrialisation and counter-urbanisation


What three types of purposes can land be used for?



What is commercial land?

Eg, offices, buildings, shopping centres and hotels


What is industrial land?

eg. Factories, warehouses


What is residential land?

eg. Houses, flats and apartments (anything that people live in)


How is land use influenced by accessibility?

City centres are usually very accessible - near train and bus stations and centre of road network
Shops and offices in city centres as accessible for more people
Some Businesses now locate on the edge of cities - near major motorway junctions and out of town airports (avoiding traffic conjestion)


How is land use influenced by Planning Regulations?

City planners try to control how cities developing by deciding what type of buildings can be built in different parts of city
Often strict planning regulations in city centres - polluting industries may be banned
Some strict limits in development in the rural urban fringe (eg. Green belt land cant be built on. Stops city going into country side


How is land use influenced by availability?

Businesses may extend upwards as ground space is limited in city centres. - tallest buildings normally in city centres
Brownfield land may be redeveloped as shops/offices
Lots of space on edge of cities -larger buildings made eg, shopping centres, science parks


How is land use influenced by cost?

City centre has highest land prices - decreases further outwards
Businesses and shops can afford to locate offices and shops in city centre but there are few houses
Houses usually increase in size from inner city to suburbs as price of land decreases


Where is Lagos?

NIGERIA. At the outlet of the massive LAGOS LAGOON on the ATLANTIC WESTERN COAST.


What is Lagos' location ideal for?

Its PORT. (One of the biggest in Africa).
City has spread from Lagos Island around the lagoon and along the coast


POINT)) Lagos is well connected by road to the other major towns in nigeria

POINT 2)) It has an international airport and port , making it important for global and regional trade


What gives Lagos its cultural importance?

It is the centre of the Nigerian film industry 'Nollywood' and has a thriving music scene.


What does the development of Lagos mean in terms of area functions?

Land use and building age varies across the city

OLDEST parts of the city - LAGOS ISLAND (CBD)= many old buildings been redeveloped. EXPENSIVE LAND


What did rapid expansion mean in 1990?

Lagos had merged with smaller surrounding towns to form continuous urban area. - city continued to sprawl into surrounding country side


What way has Lagos mainly spread?

NORTH. Due to the lagoon to the east and major rivers to the west


Where have slums developed?

Less desirable land on the OUTSKIRTS

however, over time, the city has sprawled outwards beyond many of the slums making them form part of the main urban area


What is the age and function of the CBD (Lagos Island)?

Modern high rise office buildings,
local government headquarters


What is the age and function of the inner city (Mushin and Ikeja)?

Mushin - older, high density, low quality houses
Ikeja - Large industrial state with factories making eg, plastic and textiles


What is the ageing and function of the suburbs (Victoria Island)

Modern, high-class residential and commercial. - lots of businesses and shops


What us the ageing and function of the rural urban fringe (Ojo and Lekki)

Ojo - Sprawling, low density new housing on Outskirts

Lekki - New industrial sone and port being built


Lagos' population has grown rapidly for different reasons at 3 major times...



Why did the city grow due to history?

City was under British Rule during colonial times and was centre of trade - attracting traders and merchants
Many Ex-slaves came to Lagos


Why did the city grow (1960-1990)?

After gaining independence - rapid economical development (export of oil made some very wealthy)

Government financed construction projects (eg, sea ports, factories) - creating jobs - rapid urbanisation

Birth rates increased. Death rate decreased - rapid growing population


Why did Lagos' population grow recently?

Rural urban migration

Countries around Nigeria are poor and in conflict (Chad, Niger,) - people move for better life

National migration due to ethnic and religious conflict / poverty

International Migration from USA and UK and CHINA - people employed to foreign businesses


How has Lagos's growth causes changes in land use?

City expanded OUTWARDS. (Larger area is now built on) --> forced to rural-urban fringe as cant afford housing in inner city

Land reclaimed from Lagoon making it high demand and valuable --> artificial buildings made

Empty areas now built on, eg. Slums on wasteland areas and houses on stilts in the Lagoon


4 reasons why people have more opportunities in Lagos rather than in rural Nigeria and surrounding countries.

Incomes around 4x Higher --> huge population --> large market

Home of many banks, government departments, manufacturing industries. --> provide employment

Better health care and education

Possible access to electricity and water networks


There are also challenges in Lagos eg.... (6)

Squatter Settlements
Traffic Congestion
Limited service provision
Poor employment conditions
Waste disposal
Water supply


What are RICH benefits / inequalities ?

Wealthy can afford better housing

Afford to live closer to work and avoid traffic congestion

Can improve quality of life by running there own powerful generators for neighbours


What are the DISADVANTAGES / INEQUALITIES of the poor?

Cant afford high quality housing --> Slums --> floods, pollution

No access/ minimal access to electricity --> pollution (fire)

Lack of waste disposal --> health risks


What us sustainability?

improving things for people of TODAY without negatively affecting future generations. (Using up resources faster than they can be replaced)


4 Top down strategies making Lagos more sustainable...

Improving Water Supply - new treatment plants and networks. Reducing price of water --> less informal sells
Improving Waste Disposals - rubbish collection
Reducing Traffic Congestión - transport connecting to CBD and other majors
Improving Air Quality - banned smaller electricity generators


What are the bottom up strategies aiming to make Lagos more sustainable?

Improving Health - more health centres and education projects
Improving City Housing - offer small loans
Improving Education - charities


Advantages of Top Down strategies

Achieve large improvements that affect WHOLE city
Carry out higher cost projects that communities or NGO's would find hard to fund
Can address economic, social and environmental sustainability


What are the disadvantages of Top Down strategies?

Don't always have support of communities who may ignore/underestimate
May not help the most in need


What are the advantages of Bottom Up strategies?

Planned with local community
Often funded by donations from more developed countries or wealthy people so low cost for people it helps and Nigerian Government


What are the disadvantages of bottom up strategies ?

Smaller scale projects - reach fewer people
Funds may be limited
Can lack co ordination