Flashcards in Challenges Of Religious Belief Deck (10):
What is weak atheism?
Scepticism about God existing
What is strong atheism?
An explicitly help belief that God doesn’t exist
What did Freud say about religion?
- it is an illusion that answers our inner needs
- it arises from a fear of a chaotic world
- religion is a form of neurotic illness that arises from the unconscious mind
What did Freud say about religion and the primal horde?
- the most dominant male in the horde would have the pick of females to breed with
- he would become the leader and the younger males would become jealous
- they would plot to kill this father figure
-this is echoed in the family where a son is jealous of his father for taking away the affections of his mother ( Oedipus complex)
- After the fathers death, members of the horde would idolise him and he becomes a totem as a way of controlling their guilt
- religion is a form of idolising the father figure to divine
What are criticisms of Freud’s idea of religion and the primitive horde?
- the Oedipus complex is denied by modern psychology
- how could guilt felt by the primal horde be inherited?
- in some tribes, males played role of nurse, not hunter, so god is not necessarily a symbol of this male
What are Jung’s psychological explanations of religion?
- there are 2 parts to the unconscious= personal and collective
- collective= sharing of a series of images and archetypes from society
- religion provides many of these images and individual shares in the cultural life of their group
- God= archetype - exists as a psychic reality - prevents neurosis
What is Emile Durkheim’s sociological explanation of religion?
- religion = series of beliefs and practices, which unite into a single moral community- church
- religion gives a framework for societal values
- God does not exist independently of people who practice it
- community created strengthens society
- God is a projection of the strength of society
What are criticisms of Durkheim’s idea?
- religious believers are often loyal to God, not community
- some believers go against society rather than adhere (Martin Luther king)
- society constantly changes, unlike religion
What is Marx’s sociological explanation of religion?
- religion is part of the oppressing structures that alienate society
- sees religion as ‘the opium of the people’
- a mid repression, people seek hope in God, rather than empowering themselves
- individual > God