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Flashcards in Champagne Deck (40):

In what regions of Champagne is Pinot Noir the most planted varietal?

Montage de Reims and the Aube


What are the regions of Champagne?

Montagne de Reims, Vallée de la Marne, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, and the Côte des Bars (the Aube)


In what regions of Champagne is Chardonnay the most planted varietal?

Côte des Blancs and Côte de Sézanne


Why is Meunier the most planted variety in the Vallée de la Marne?

The area is frost prone and Meunier buds late and ripens early


What are the Grand Cru villages of Montagne de Reims?

Sillery, Puisieulx, Beaumont-sur-Vesle, Verzenay, Mailly Champagne, Verzy, Louvois, Bouzy, Ambonnay


What are the Grand Cru villages of Vallée de la Marne?

Aÿ, Tours-sur-Marne


What are the Grand Cru villages of the Côte des Blancs?

Chouilly, Oiry, Cramant, Avize, Oger, Le Mesnil-sur-Oger


Which regions in Champagne do not have any Grand Cru villages?

Côte de Sézanne and the Aube


Which two Grand Cru villages have different rating for the red and white grapes?

Tours-sur-Marne (red grapes 100%, white grapes 90%)
Chouilly (white grapes 100%, red grapes 95%)


Which Grand Cru villages were added after 1985?

Verzy (Montagne de Reims)
Chouilly, Oiry, Oger, Le Mesnil-sur-Oger (Côte des Blancs)


What are two other names for the Méthode Champenoise?

Méthode traditionnelle, Méthode classique


What is the oldest house in Champagne?

Gosset, founded 1584 as a still wine producer


What was Dom Pérignon's main contribution to Champagne production?

Assemblage (blending)


What is the oldest sparkling Champagne house?

Ruinart, 1729


What is the CIVC?

the Comité Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne which is responsible for mediating relations between growers and producers, oversees the production methods and promotion of Champagne, regulates the size of harvests, authorizes blocage and deblocage—respectively the reserve and release of wine stocks for use in future vintages—and safeguards the protected designation of Champagne


What does NM on a Champagne bottle indicate?

(Négociant Manipulant): A house that purchases grapes and or base wines from growers and other smaller houses. Some NM houses own a significant portion of their own vineyards; others own none at all. Large Champagne houses with the most international presence are invariably in this category: Moët et Chandon, Louis Roederer, Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin, Billecart-Salmon, Lanson, Taittinger, Pol Roger, Perrier-Jouët, Mumm, and Laurent-Perrier. Quality varies widely, although prices are uniformly high. Many houses often fall under the same corporate parentage; for example, Moët et Chandon, Krug, Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin, and Mercier fall under the umbrella of the luxury conglomerate LVMH.


What does RM on a Champagne bottle indicate?

(Récoltant Manipulant): A grower-producer who makes Champagne from estate-grown fruit. 95% of the grapes must originate in the producer’s own vineyards.


What does CM on a Champagne bottle indicate?

CM (Coopérative Manipulant): A growers’ co-operative that produces the wine under a single brand.


What does RC on a Champagne bottle indicate?

RC (Récoltant Coopérateur): A grower whose grapes are vinified at a co-operative, but sells the wine under his own label.


What does SR on a Champagne bottle indicate?

SR (Société de Récoltants): A firm, not a co-operative, set up by a union of often related growers, who share resources to make their wines and collectively market several brands.


What does ND on a Champagne bottle indicate?

ND (Négociant Distributeur): A middleman company that distributes Champagne it did not make.


What does MA on a Champagne bottle indicate?

MA (Marque d’Acheteur): A buyer’s own brand, often a large supermarket chain or restaurant, that purchases Champagne and sells it under its own label.


What are the two still wine appellations in Champagne?

Coteaux Champenois and Rosé de Riceys


What style of wine can be produced in Coteaux Champenois AOP?

still red, white, and rosé wines


What style of wine can be produced in Rosé de Riceys AOP?

100% Pinot Noir rosé wines produced in Les Riceys, a cru village in the Aube.


When was Coteaux Champenois AOP established?

1974 (last updated in 2010)


When was Rosé de Riceys AOP established?

1947 (last updated in 2010)


When was Dom Pérignon cellar master at the Abbey of Hautvillers?

1668 until his death in 1715


What was the original problem with natural refermentation in the bottle in Champagne?

As the weather cooled off in the autumn and the yeasts became dormant, fermentation would sometimes prematurely stop, and the wines would be bottled with fermentable sugars still present. With the spring thaw and rising temperatures, yeasts would awaken inside the bottle, and refermentation occurred. The resulting sparkle was a fatal flaw, as the weak, wood-fired French glass of the past could not withstand the mounting gas pressure, and bottles would explode, often causing a chain reaction throughout the cellar.


By what year were the Champenois enjoying intentionally sparkling wines?

In 1724 the word mousseux, appeared in connotation with the wines of Champagne, although they may have enjoyed intentionally sparkling wines as early as 1700


Why were bottles still exploding after the introduction of stronger glass to Champagne? What terminology derived from the results?

Some attributed the sparkle to the phases of the moon, and this early unpredictability created a need for additional terminology—pétillant, demi-mousseux (crémant), and grand mousseux—to define the level of effervescence


Before bubbles became common, how were the Champenois trying to compete with the wines of Burgundy? How did those efforts effect sparkling production?

Producers began to produce white wines from red grapes in an effort to improve quality—an important stylistic innovation that required exacting pressing and harvest procedures to retain a purely white must. Vestiges of vin gris Champagne production would inform sparkling winemaking: a 1718 winemaking treatise highlights the division in quality between vin de cuvée and vin de taille when pressing red grapes for white wine.


What did the Champenois add to their pale red wines to enhance color?



What is Veuve Cliquot's name and what did her Champagne house pioneer?

Madame Barbe-Nicole Ponsardin, the process of remuage, or riddling


Who was Jean-Antoine Chaptal?

The French chemist and statesman for whom the process of chaptalization is named, identified the relationship between sugar and fermentation in a seminal 1801 work.


How did pharmacist André François effect the Champagne industry?

His measurement of the precise amount of sugar required to induce secondary fermentation without breaking the bottle


Who produced the first brut Champagne and when was it put on the market?

Pommery put the first brut Champagne, Pommery “Nature,” on the market in 1874


In what year did the French delimit the Champagne region?

1908, further defining the area in 1927


What are the general rules for membership in the Champagne Special Club?

• Viticulture must occur on the estate (only RM producers may join)
• Vinification and bottling must occur on the estate
• Members must respect and uphold the Club's charter
• The "Special Club" is the top-of-the-range, prestige cuvée for all members
• The Club Trésors will declare a vintage as being worthy of "Special Club" prestige cuvées, then each member may decide individually whether or not to produce a "Special Club" wine
• All base wines and finished "Special Club" wines must undergo tasting analysis
• All "Special Club" bottles share an identical label and bottle shape


Which two villages received a 99% ranking in Champagne?

Mareuil-sur-Ay in the Vallée de la Marne and Tauxières in Montagne de Reims