Flashcards in Champagne Deck (110):
Wines made in the fashion of Champagne but produced elsewhere may be labeled as:
Methode Traditionelle or Method Classique
Who was Dom Perignon?
Cellar master at the Abbey of Hautvillers from 1668 until his death in 1715. His lasting contributions to modern Champagne lie in the techniques of assemblage (blending) and viticulture.
What are some other words used to describe effervescence?
pétillant, demi-mousseux (crémant), and grand mousseux
Vineyards in Champagne date to the ___ Century
What is the oldest Champagne house still in production today?
Gosset, founded in 1584 as a still wine producer. Their Tête de Cuvée is 'Célébris.'
Ruinart, founded in 1729, can claim to be the oldest sparkling Champagne house. Their Tête de Cuvée is Dom Ruinart.
Why is most Champagne white?
Because the champenoise were competing with the wines of Burgundy for market share.
Veuve Cliquot - what was her name? When did she take over?
Madame Barbe-Nicole Ponsardin. She took over the house at the turn of the 19th C.
Under her leadership, the house exacted remuage (riddling).
What was the first Brut champagne?
Pommery "Nature" in 1874.
When was Champagne delimited?
1908. It was added to the AOC system in 1936.
True or False: Champagne is the only AOC in France that does NOT need to include AOC/AOP on the label.
Phylloxera struck Champagne in the ____s
What is the CIVC?
Comité Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne.
It remains a powerful force in the complex mediation between the large Champagne houses and the numerous smaller growers from whom they source grapes. It also oversees the production methods and promotion of Champagne. The CIVC regulates the size of harvests, authorizes blocage and deblocage—respectively the reserve and release of wine stocks for use in future vintages—and safeguards the protected designation of Champagne.
It was organized by Count Robert-Jean de Vogüé of Moët et Chandon in 1941 to represent the Champagne industry and protect its interests in the face of Nazi occupation.
What was the inaugural vintage of Dom Pérignon?
How many villages can grow grapes for the Champagne appellation?
357, up from 319. In 2009 the INAO increased that number to meet the burden of demand.
Champagne is on the ___th Parallel.
What kind of chalk is in Champagne's soils?
Belemnite chalk, derived from the fossilized remains of millions of extinct cephalopods, has a high limestone content, which allows vine roots to dig deeply and is linked to increased acidity.
There's a second layer of chalk in Champagne's valley floor vineyards. What is it?
Micraster chalk. It's named for an extinct sea urchin.
What is the dominant top soil in Champagne?
Clay and sand in most of the region; in The Aube it's mostly clay.
Name the 4 other grapes permitted in Champagne.
Pinot Blanc Vrai (“true” Pinot Blanc, a white form of Pinot Noir), Arbane, Pinot Gris, and Petit Meslier
Only 4 pruning methods are permitted in Champagne. They are:
Cordon de Royat, Chablis, Vallée de la Marne, and Guyot (double and simple).
What are the pressing limits in Champagne?
Established in 1992 by the CIVC. 102 liters of must for every 160 kg of grapes, or 2,550 liters per 4,000 kg—a marc of grapes, the amount held in a traditional Coquard basket press.
List the 17 Grand Cru villages of Champagne:
Montagne de Reims - 9
Côte des Blancs, north to south - 6
Vallée de la Marne - 2
What are some of the top Premier Cru villages of Champagne (there are 42)?
The largest Grand Cru in Champagne is:
Chouilly in the Côte des Blancs with an area under vine of just over 500ha.
What are the types of Champagne producers?
NM (Négociant Manipulant): A house that purchases grapes and or base wines from growers and other smaller houses. Some NM houses own a significant portion of their own vineyards; others own none at all. Large Champagne houses with the most international presence are invariably in this category: Moët et Chandon, Louis Roederer, Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin, Billecart-Salmon, Lanson, Taittinger, Pol Roger, Perrier-Jouët, Mumm, and Laurent-Perrier. Quality varies widely, although prices are uniformly high. Many houses often fall under the same corporate parentage; for example, Moët et Chandon, Krug, Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin, and Mercier fall under the umbrella of the luxury conglomerate LVMH.
RM (Récoltant Manipulant): A grower-producer who makes Champagne from estate-grown fruit. 95% of the grapes must originate in the producer’s own vineyards.
CM (Coopérative Manipulant): A growers’ co-operative that produces the wine under a single brand.
RC (Récoltant Coopérateur): A grower whose grapes are vinified at a co-operative, but sells the wine under his own label.
SR (Société de Récoltants): A firm, not a co-operative, set up by a union of often related growers, who share resources to make their wines and collectively market several brands.
ND (Négociant Distributeur): A middleman company that distributes Champagne it did not make.
MA (Marque d’Acheteur): A buyer’s own brand, often a large supermarket chain or restaurant, that purchases Champagne and sells it under its own label.
What are the three first pressings of Champagne called?
Vin de cuvée (the first 2,050 liters)
Vin de taille (the following 500 liters). The vin de taille is usually richer in pigment and tannin, and many producers sell off this lesser component of the must or include it in a minor proportion as a structural element in a blend.
Rebêche, is required by law and must comprise 1-10% of the total. The rebêche is used for distillate, not Champagne.
What is débourbage?
When the must settles at a cool temp, usually for 8-15 hours.
What are bourbes?
Solids that are removed after débourbage.
What are vins clairs?
The high-acid base wines; they've already gone through primary fermentation to be called vin clair. ABV at this point is about 11%.
After primary and malo (if the wine goes through malo), the wine is clarified. How do you clarify?
fining, filtering, or centrifuge
What happens after assemblage and cold stabilization?
The blend is racked and bottled with the addition of liqueur de tirage, a mixture of still wine, yeasts, sugar, and fining agents that will serve to ignite the second fermentation.
What is prise de mousse?
Second fermentation (in the bottle).
What is the little plastic capsule called that catches all the sediment during remerge?
How long does secondary fermentation last?
Up to 2 months.
How are bottles stored during secondary fermentations?
On their sides, or sur latte.
How may atmospheres of pressure does a champagne bottle have nearing the end of secondary fermentation?
About 5-6 atm of pressure.
A minimum of ____ months sur lie is required for non-vintage champagnes.
12 months, but it cannot be released until it's 15 months.
What's the two large wooden planks fastened together in an upright “A” shape, with sixty angled holes cut into each plank of wood called?
How many bottles does a gyropalette hold?
What is the final dosage called?
How much RS is in Brut Nature/Non-Dosé?
0-3 grams per liter, no added dosage
How much RS is in Extra Brut?
0-6g per liter
How much RS is in Brut?
0-12g per liter
How much RS is in Extra Dry?
12-17g per liter
How much RS is in Sec?
17-32g per liter
How much RS is in Demi-Sec?
32-50g per liter
How much RS is in Doux?
50+g per liter
What is the wire cage called?
Vintage champagnes require ____ months in the cellar.
How many ml in a quarter bottle (Piccolo) of champagne?
How many ml in a half-bottle (split) of champagne?
How many ml in a regular sized bottle?
How many L or bottles is in a magnum?
1.5L or 2 bottles
How many L or bottles in a Jeroboam?
3L or 4 bottles
How many L or bottles in a Rehoboam (discontinued in 1989)?
4.5L or 6 bottles
How many L or bottles in a Methuselah?
6L or 8 bottles
How many L or bottles in a Salmanazar?
9L or 12 bottles
How many L or bottles in a Balthazar?
12L or 16 bottles
How many L or bottles in a Nebuchadnezzar?
15L or 20 bottles
How many L or bottles in a Solomon?
18L or 24 bottles
Name some larger size bottles:
Sovereign, Primat, and Melchior (this last one holds 18L, like Solomon, and is found in Bordeaux)
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Ayala (Aÿ)?
"Cuvée Perle d'Ayala" (Brut and Nature)
80% Chardonnay, 20% Pinot Noir
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for Billecart-Salmon (Mareuil-sur-Aÿ)?
"Grande Cuvée" - 60% Pinot Noir, 40% Chardonnay. Inaugural vintage was 1982
Nicolas François Billecart - 60% PN, 40% CH
"Elisabeth Salmon Rosé" Inaugural vintage was 1988
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for Bollinger (Aÿ)?
"La Grande Année"
"Vieilles Vignes Françaises" - 100% PN. Inaugural vintage was 1969
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Boizel (Épernay)?
"Joyau de France" (Brut and Brut Rosé) - PN and CH. Inaugural vintage was 1961
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Canard Duchêne (Ludes)?
"Charles VII" NV
(Brut, Brut Rosé, Blanc de Blancs, and Blanc de Noirs)
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Comtes Audoin de Dampierre (Chenay)?
"Prestige" - 100% CH
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for De Castellane (Épernay)?*
*No longer produced
"Cuvée Commodore" Brut - 30% Chardonnay, 70% Pinot Noir
"Cuvée Commodore" Rosé - 20% Chardonnay, 80% Pinot Noir
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for De Meric (Aÿ)?
"Catherine de Médicis" - 50% CH, 50% PN
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for De Venoge (Épernay)?
"Grand Vin des Princes" - Blanc de Blancs. Inaugural vintage was 1961, but it has been vintage-dated in every following release. The GVdP was discontinued in 1994 with the creation of the "Louis XV" label, but produced again for the 2000 vintage.
"Louis XV" - Brut and Extra-Brut Rosé. 50% Chardonnay. 50% Pinot Noir
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Delamotte (Le Mesnil-sur-Oger)?*
*No longer produced
"Nicolas Louis Delamotte" - 90% CH, 10% PN
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for Deutz (Aÿ)?
"Cuvée William Deutz" (Blanc/Rosé) - CH, PN, PM
"Amour de Deutz" -- 100% CH. Inaugural vintage 1993
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Diebolt-Vallois (Cramant)?
"Fleur de Passion" - 100% CH. Inaugural vintage 1995
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Drappier (Urville)?
"Charles de Gaulle" - 80% PN, 20% CH. Inaugural vintage 1990
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Duval-Leroy (Vertus)?
"Femme de Champagne" - 89% CH, 11% PN. Inaugural vintage 1990
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Gosset (Aÿ)?
"Célébris" - Blanc de Blancs NV, Vintage Extra Brut Rosé and Vintage Extra Brut. The Extra Brut blends vary widely with vintage.
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Alfred Gratien (Épernay)?
"Cuvée Paradis" NV - Brut and Brut Rosé - CH and PN
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Charles Heidsieck (Reims)?
"Champagne Charlie" - discontinued after 1985 vintage
"Blanc des Millénaires" - 100% CH. Inaugural vintage 1983
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Henriot (Reims)?
"Cuvée des Enchanteleurs" - CH and PN
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Jacquesson (Dizy)?*
"Grand Vin Signature" - discontinued after 2002 vintage
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Lanson (Reims)?
"Noble Cuvée" Brut - 60-70% Chardonnay, 30-40% Pinot Noir
Blanc de Blancs
NV Rosé - 62% Chardonnay 32% Pinot Noir
Inaugural vintage 1979
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Laurent-Perrier (Tours-sur-Marne)?
"Grand Siècle" - typically NV. Roughly 50/50 CH and PN. It was the first NV wine released in 1960
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for AR Lenoble (Chouilly)?
"Cuvée Les Aventures"(NV)
"Cuvée Gentilhomme" (Vintage) - both 100% CH
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for Moët et Chandon (Épernay)?
"Dom Pérignon" - CH/PN
"Dom Pérignon Oenothèque" - CH/PN
(both Brut/Brut Rosé)
Inaugural vintage 1921
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for G.H. Mumm (Reims)?
"Cuvée R. Lalou" - CH/PN. Inaugural vintage 1966 (discontinued in 1985, revived in 1998)
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Bruno Paillard (Reims)?
"Nec-Plus-Ultra" - CH/PN. Inaugural vintage 1990
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Joseph Perrier (Châlons-sur-Marne)?
"Cuvée Joséphine" - predominantly CH
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Perrier-Jouët (Épernay)?
"Belle Époque/Fleur de Champagne (USA)"
Brut - 50% Chardonnay, 45% Pinot Noir, 5% Meunier
Blanc de Blancs
Inaugural vintage 1964
2002 - Last vintage for Fleur de Champagne label
What is the Tête de Cuvée (aka Prestige Cuvée) for Piper-Heidsieck (Reims)?
"Rare" - CH/PN. Inaugural vintage 1976
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Ployez-Jacquemart (Ludes)?
"Liesse d'Harbonville" - 70% CH, 30% PN
What is the Tête de Cuvée (aka Prestige Cuvée) for Pol Roger (Épernay)?
"Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill" - PN/CH. Inaugural vintage 1975
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Pommery (Reims)?
"Cuvée Louise" Brut - 60% Chardonnay, 40% Pinot Noir
"Cuvée Louise" Brut Rosé
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Louis Roederer (Reims)?
"Cristal" Brut - roughly 55% Pinot Noir, 45% Chardonnay
"Cristal" Brut Rosé
Inaugural vintage for Cristal: 1876 (not available commercially until 1945)
Cristal Rosé: 1974
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Ruinart (Reims)?
"Dom Ruinart" Blanc de Blancs
"Dom Ruinart" Rosé - 85% Chardonnay, 15% Pinot Noir
Inaugural vintages Dom Ruinart: 1959,
Dom Ruinart Rosé: 1966
What are the Tête de Cuvées (Prestige Cuvée) for Taittinger (Reims)?
"Comtes de Champagne" Blanc de Blancs
"Comtes de Champagne" Rosé - 70% Pinot Noir, 30% Chardonnay
"Taittinger Collection" - 50% Chardonnay 50% Pinot Noir
Inaugural vintages CdC: 1952
CdC Rosé: 1973
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Veuve Clicquot-Ponsardin (Reims)?
"La Grande Dame" Brut - 60-65% Pinot Noir, 30-35% Chardonnay
"La Grande Dame" Brut Rosé
Inaugural vintages Brut: 1969,
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Chartogne-Taillet (Merfy)?
"Fiacre" - 60% CH, 40% PN
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Guy Larmandier (Cramant)?
"Cramant Grand Cru Cuvée Prestige"
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Jacques Selosse (Avize)?
"Substance" NV - 100% CH
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Vilmart &; Cie (Rilly-la-Montagne)?
"Coeur de Cuvée" - 80% CH, 20% PN
Inaugural vintage 1989
What is the Tête de Cuvée (Prestige Cuvée) for Nicolas Feuillatte (Chouilly)?
"Palmes d'Or" Brut and Brut Rosé - roughly 50% CH, 50% PN
Inaugural vintage Brut: 1985
Brut Rosé: 1996
Noteworthy Single Vineyards in Champange:
Agrapart (Avize) - "Vénus" Brut Nature, 100% CH
Billecart-Salmon (Mareuil-sur-Aÿ) - "Clos St-Hilaire" 100% PN
Egly-Ouriet (Ambonnay) - "Les Crayères" NV, 100% PN
Krug (Reims) - "Clos du Mesnil," 100% CH
Krug (Reims) - "Clos d'Ambonnay," 100% PN
Larmandier-Bernier (Vertus) - "Vieille Vigne de Cramant",
"Terre de Vertus" both 100% CH
Jean Milan (Oger) - "Terres de Noël" 100%CH
Pierre Peters (Mesnil-sur-Oger) - "Cuvée Spéciale les Chétillons" 100% CH
Philipponnat (Mareuil-sur-Aÿ) - "Clos des Goisses" 70% PN, 30% CH
Tarlant (Oeuilly) - "La Vigne d'Or", "La Vigne d'Antan",
NV "Cuvée Louis"
Veuve Fourny (Vertus) - "Clos Faubourg Notre Dame" 100% CH
Name some grower-producers and where they are:
VALLÉE DE LA MARNE
MONTAGNE DE REIMS
CÔTE DES BLANCS
Vouette & Sorbée
CÔTE DE SEZANNE
CÔTE DES BAR
Top producers in Aÿ:
Top producers in Bouzy:
Top producers in Epernay:
Top producers in Mesnil-sur-Oger:
Top producers in Mareuil-sur-Aÿ:
Top producers in Reims: