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Flashcards in Champagne/Sparkling Deck (87):
1

Define Remuage

Riddling, turning the bottles during secondary fermentation to move the yeast sludge towards the neck of the bottle

2

Define Dégorgement

Disgorgement, removing the yeast cells in sparkling wine production through an expulsion of wine and sediment

3

Who released the first "Brut" Champagne

Pommery with their "Nature" label in 1874

4

What is the only AOP/AOC that does not need to include "Appellation Controlee/ protegee on the label

Champagne

5

Who is the oldest champagne house, originally producing only still wine

Gosset est in 1584

6

Who is the oldest sparkling wine exclusive champagne house

Ruinart, est 1729

7

What are the two major soil types of champagne

Belemnite: Porous Chalk with lots of limestone attributed to higher acidity

Mircraster: Chalk characteristic of the valley vineyards

8

Where in champagne is Clay a dominant soil type

The Aube

9

Name the authorized grapes for Champagne production

-Chardonnay
-Pinot Noir
-Pinot Meunier
-Pinot Blanc
-Pinot Gris (Fromenteau)
-Arbane
-Petit Meslier

10

What is the most planted grape of Champagne

Pinot Noir

11

Name the pruning methods authorized in Champagne

-Cordon de Royat
-Chablis
-Vallée de la Marne (Only for Meunier)
-Guyot (Both double and simple)

12

What is a marc in Champagne

A marc is a measurement of resulting grape must from grapes. Only 2,550 liters per 4,000Kg of grape may be pressed; this is also the amount held in a traditional Coquard basket press

13

What Champagne Grand Cru is considered a premier cru for white grapes

Tour-Sur-Marne in the Vallee de la Marne

14

What Champagne Grand Cru is considered a premier cru for red grapes

Choilly in the Cote de Blanc

15

Name the 5 districts of Champagne

-Montagne de Reims
-Vallée de la Marne
-Cote des Blancs
-Cote de Sézanne
-Cote des Bars (Aube)

16

Define Blocage

Reserving wine stocks in Champagne for use in future vintages

17

Define Deblocage

Releasing reserve wines from previous vintages in Champagne to use in blends

18

What are the only two premier crus in Champagne with a 99% échelle rating

-Tauxierès in MdR
-Mareuil-sur-Ay in VdM

19

Name the Grand Crus of the Montagne de Reims from North to South

-Sillery
-Puisieulx
-Beaumont-sur-Vesle
-Verzenay
-Mailly
-Verzy (Added in 1985)
-Louvois
-Bouzy
-Ambonnay

20

Name the Grand Crus of the Vallée de la Marne

-Ay
-Tours-sur-Marne (Red grapes only)

21

What grand cru in Champagne is authorized for red grapes only

Tour-sur-Marne in the Vallee de la Marne,. It is a premier cru for white grapes

22

What grand cru of Champagne is authorized for white grapes only

Chouilly in the Cote des Blancs. It is a premier cru for red grapes

23

Name the grand crus of the Cote de Blancs from North to South

-Chouilly (White grapes only, added in 1985)
-Oiry (Added in 1985)
-Cramant
-Avize
-Oger (Added in 1985)
-Le Mesnil-sur-Oger (Added in 1985)

24

What grand crus of champagne were added after 1985

-Verzy (MdR)
-Chouilly (CdB)
-Oiry (CdB)
-Oger (CdB)
-Le Mesnil-sur-Oger

25

Define NM

"Negociant Manipulant" A hopuse that purchases grapes for base wines. They may own some of their own vineyards or they may not

26

Define RM

"Recoltant Manipulant" Grower-producer making champagne from estate grown fruit. 95% of the grapes must come from the producer's own vineyards

27

Define CM

"Cooperative Manipulant" Grower cooperative producing wine under a single brand

28

Define RC

'Recoltant Cooperateur" A grower whose grapes are vinified at a cooperative but the wine is sold under his own label

29

Define SR

"Societe de Recoltants" A firm, not a cooperative, set up by a union of growers who share resources to make their wines and market several brands

30

Define ND

"Negotiant Distribteur" Middleman company that distributes Champagne it did not make

31

Define MA

"Marque d'Acheteur" A "Buyers own brand" often a large supermarket or restaurant that purchases champagne and sells it under its own label

32

Define vin de Cuvée

The first 2,050 liters of a marc of grapes (4,000kg) which is the best juice

33

Define vin de taille

The following 500 liters of juice pressed from a marc of grapes (4,000kg) which is richer and more pigmented than the vin de cuvee. it may be sold off or used as a structural element in the blend

34

Define rêbeche

Third pressing of Champagne required by law to comprise 1-10% of the total which is used for distillate production, not champagne

35

Define débourbage

Allowing sediment to settle in wine

36

Define liqueur de tirage

Mixture of still wine, yeasts, sugar and fining agents added to still wine to start a second fermentation inside the bottle

37

Define prise de mousse

"Capture the sparkle" which is another term for second fermentation

38

Define bidule

Plastic capsule inside a crown cap which helps to capture sediment during remuage (riddling)

39

What is the atmospheric pressure of champagne

5-6 atmospheres

40

Define sur latte

Horizontal storage of champagne bottles during second fermentation

41

Define pointage

Historic method of briskly shaking champagne bottles before disgorgement to prevent yeast from sticking to the sides of the bottle

42

What is the capacity of a gyropalette

504 bottles

43

What is the capacity of a pupitre

60 bottles, although many places have replaced this A shaped bottle storage style for gyropalattes

44

Define sur pointe

Vertical standing of champagne bottles after riddling prior to disgorgement

45

Define liqueur d'expedition

Dosage: liquid mixture of sugar syrup and wine to adjust the final sweetness level of champagne

46

Discuss the 6 categories of sweetness for champagne and the residual sugar levels

-Extra Brut: 0-6 g/L
-Brut: 0-12 g/L
-Extra Dry: 12-17 g/L
-Sec: 17-32 g/L
-Demi-Sec: 32-50g/L
-Doux: 50+ g/L

As of 2011 there is an allowed 3g/L margin of error

47

How much of a years harvest may be used for vintage champagne

80%

48

What are the aging requirements for non vintage and vintage champagne

Non-Vintage: 15 months total 12 of which must be on the lees

Vintage: 36 months

49

Describe the varying bottle sizes in champagne and their volumes

-Quarter bottle (Piccolo): 187mL
-Half Bottle (Demi): 375mL
-Bottle: 750mL
-Magnum: 1.5L
-Jeroboam: 3L
-Rheoboam: 4.5L (Discontinued in 1989)
-Methuselah: 6L
-Salmanazar: 9L
-Balthazar: 12L
-Nebuchadnezzar: 15L
-Solomon: 18L (Called Melchior in Bordeaux)

50

What is the capacity of a Jeroboam

3L; 4 bottles

51

What is the capacity of a Rehoboam

4.5L; 6 bottles

52

What is the capacity of a Methuselah

6L; 8 bottles

53

What is the capacity of a Salmanazar

9L; 12 bottles

54

What is the capacity of a Balthazar

12L; 16bottles

55

What is the capacity of a Nebuchadnezzar

15L; 20 bottles

56

What is the capacity of a Solomon

18L; 24 bottles

57

Name 5 special club members

While there are 28 total members, a good handful to know are:

-Gaston Chiquet
-Pierre Gimonnet
-Henri Goutorbe
-Marc Hébrart
-José Michel
-Larmandier Père et Fils
-Nomine-Rénard
-Vazart-Coquart

58

Name the two still wine AOPs in Champagne

-Coteaux Champenois
-Rosé de Riceys

59

What style of wine is designated to Rosé de Riceys AOP and where does it come from

Rose wine only from 100% Pinot Noir coming from the village of Les Riceys in the Aube

60

Describe the Methode Ancestrale

AKA method rurale in which a single fermentation begins in tank but the wine is transferred to bottles before the process is complete. Liqueur de tirage is unnecessary. Yeasts continue to ferment the remaining sugars inside the bottle giving the wine its sparkle. Dosage is not allowed. Wine is typically disgorged, filtered and rebottled in clean glass prior to sale.

61

Name 3 AOPs that produce method ancestrale wines and the names of the wines

-Bugey AOP in Savoie producing Bugey-Cerdon

-Clairette de Die AOP in the Northern Rhone producing Clairette de Die Méthod Dioise Ancestrale

-Gaillac AOP in southwest France producing Gallaic Mousseux Méthode Gaillacoise

62

Describe the Continuous Method

AKA Russian Continuous Method, developed in the USSR

Base wine is pumped through a series of interconnected tanks while undergoing second fermentation. Liqueur de tirage is constantly added to the wine and lees accumulate in the first several tanks offering more autolysis flavor than charmat method

63

Which of Selosse's wines are made in Solera systems

-Substance featuring 100% Chardonnay from Avize

-Contraste featuring 100% Pinot Noir from Ay

With the 2010 release of Selosse's "lieux-dit" bottling, Contraste is now called "La Cote Faron" to represent the single vineyard origins. There is also "Les Carelles" which is 100% Solera Chardonnay from Le Mesnil

64

Who produces Charles de Gaulle

Drappier

65

Who produces Femme de Champagne

Duval Leroy

66

Who produces Celebris

Gosset

67

Who produces Cuvee Paradis

Alfred Gratien

68

Who produces Blanc de Millénaires

Charles Heidsieck

69

Who produces Cuvée des Enchanteurs

Henriot

70

Who produces Grand Siècle

Laurent Perrier

71

What was the first vintage of Dom Perignon

1921

72

Who produces Nec-Plus-Ultra

Also known as "N.P.U" on the bottle, this wine is made by Bruno Paillard. It is a blend of Chard and Pinot and the first vintage was 1990

73

Who produces Liesse 'd'Harbonville

Ployez-Jaquemart. Mostly chard with pinot

74

Who produces Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill

Pol Roger

75

Who produces Cuvée Louise

Pommery

76

What was the first vintage of Dom Ruinart

1959

77

What was the first vintage of La Grande Dame

1969

78

Who produces Cuvé Laetitia

Henri Billiot

79

Who producers Coeur de Cuvée

Vilmart & Cie

80

Who produces Clos St-Hillaire

Billecart-Salmon

81

Who produces Grande Sendrée

Drappier

82

Who produces Clos des Bouveries

Duval-Leroy

83

Who produces La Crayères

Egly-Ouriet

84

First vintage of Clos du Mesnil

1979

85

First vintage of Clos d'Ambonnay

1995

86

Who produces Les Chétillons

Pierre Peters

87

Who produces Clos des Goisses

Philipponnant, coming from Mareuil-sur-Ay a blend of mostly Pinot Noir with Chardonnay. The first vintage was 1935