What is the best piece of apparatus to measure the volume of hydrochloride acid?
50cm3 measuring cylinder
Why is that the best piece of apparatus?
It’s more accurate than using a beaker
How do you use universal indicator paper to measure the PH of the solution
The indicator paper changes colour and you match it to the colour chart to show the PH
Why is it necessary to stir the mixture when the calcium hydroxide powder is added
To make sure all the powder reacts with an acid
What are the main errors in this experiment?
Measuring the mass of the calcium hydroxide accurately
Making sure that all the calcium hydroxide reacts
How could you improve the method
Use more precise balance +0.01 or + 0.001
Use a larger volume of acid
Use a narrow range indicator
Use a PH metre
How do you know when the hydrochloride acid is exactly neutralised
Use the graph to work out the mass which produced a PH7
Why does adding hydroxide ions (OH)- to an acid lead to an increase in PH
The hydroxide ions neutralise the hydrogen ions neutralise the hydrogen (H+) ions. This reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions and reduces PH