Flashcards in 2) Changing Climates Deck (47):
What is happening to the climate over time?
Signs that climate is getting warmer
Ice cover decreasing
Extreme rainfall (high and low)
How is evidence collected for climate change
Rocks and fossils
Economic threats of climate change world wide
Loss of coastal properties
Drowned or desertification of crops
Economic opportunities of climate change world wide
Renewable fuels (e.g. Solar)
Heating costs decrease
Economic threats of climate change in the UK
Sea level rise
Increased risk of drought
Older people killed by heat
Economic opportunities of climate change in uk
Reduction in cold related deaths
Environmental threats of climate change world wide
Melting ice caps
Destruction of habitats or ecosystems
Areas may become uninhabitable for certain species
Environmental opportunities of climate change world wide
New wetlands may be created
Managed retreat will make salt marshes
Environmental opportunities of climate change in uk
New salt marshes
Environmental threats of climate change in uk
Agricultural land lost due to sea levels
Social threats of climate change
Beaches may be eroded
Heatwaves kill elderly
Social opportunities of climate change
Boosted construction and manufacturing industry
How do volcanoes contribute to climate change
Eruptions throw out large volume of gas and ash into atmosphere
Stop sun heat reaching earth by forming mirror
Earth cools down
How do oceans contribute to climate change
Ocean winds push heat across planet
Change in winds = change in temperature
How do the milankovitch cycles cause climate change?
Heat different parts of planet
What are the three cycles?
Oblong shape of orbit
Tilt of axis
Direction of axis
How does the earths wonky orbit cause climate change?
Different levels of radiation reach earth at different times
How does the earths tilt contribute to climate change?
The earth orbits on a /
So when one side is away from the sun, the other gets more heavy. The larger the slant, the larger the difference in season temperatures
difference between weather and climate
weather is more specific, day to day whilst climate is measured over a period of time
what is the holocene?
the last 10,000 years of warmer climate
what is the glacial period?
a period of colder climate
what is the pleistocene
the last period of glacial climate, which started 1.8 m years ago
what is the quaternary period?
the current section of earth history
what is an interglacial period?
a period of warmer climate
what is an ice core?
a tube of ice extracted so scientists can study the weather in a specific timeframe
difference between winter snow and summer snow in an ice core
summer snow is lighter - wasn't as much
role of isotopes in an ice core
there are the isotopes 16O and 18O. More 16O and the earth was colder
what is the sea ice maximum?
the maximum area covered by ice each year in the arctic
how can the sea ice maximum tell us about climate?
the more ice, the colder the year was
how can glaciers tell us about climate change?
by comparing past pictures, we can see how much of the glacier has melted = hotter weather
how can global temperature data tell us about climate change?
compare data gathered from recent years
how can paintings and diaries tell us about climate change?
we can study past pictures and diaries and compare them o the conditions today
how can fossils tell us about climate change
different species tend to favour certain climates and we can look at their adaption
what are the three things the Milankovitch cycle measures?
what is eccentricity and what effect dos it have on the climate
how circular the earth's orbit around the sun is (the more circular, the hotter earth gets)
what is axial tilt and what effect does it have on the climate?
the tilt of the earth on the axis, a greater angle of tilt = warmer temperatures
what is precession and what effect does it have on climate?
it is the earth's 'wobble'
makes some places experience very long days and others very long nights
what happens when a volcano erupts and what effect does it have on climate
spews ash and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere
particles act like mirrors and reflect suns rays
winds circulate this dust so the temperature decreases
what ar sun spots and what effect do they have on climate?
a area of darkness appearing on the sun's surface. They increase the temperature of earth
what are the four main greenhouse gases
halocarbons, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane
where is CO2 made
deforestation, industrialisation, cars
where is methane produced
rice production, cows
where are halocarbons produced
air conditioning, packaging, aerosols
where is nitrous oxide produced?
fertilisers, car exhausts
what is the greenhouse effect?
the natural way where some of the sun's heat is reflected out to space and some is conserved