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Flashcards in 2) Changing Climates Deck (47):
1

What is happening to the climate over time?

Getting warmer

2

Signs that climate is getting warmer

Ice cover decreasing
Glaciers retreating
Increased temperature
Extreme rainfall (high and low)

3

How is evidence collected for climate change

Weather recordings
Ice cores
Rocks and fossils

4

Economic threats of climate change world wide

Sea defences
Loss of coastal properties
Drowned or desertification of crops
Mass migration

5

Economic opportunities of climate change world wide

Renewable fuels (e.g. Solar)
Heating costs decrease

6

Economic threats of climate change in the UK

Sea level rise
Increased risk of drought
Older people killed by heat

7

Economic opportunities of climate change in uk

Reduction in cold related deaths
New crops
Tourism

8

Environmental threats of climate change world wide

Melting ice caps
Destruction of habitats or ecosystems
Areas may become uninhabitable for certain species

9

Environmental opportunities of climate change world wide

New wetlands may be created
Managed retreat will make salt marshes

10

Environmental opportunities of climate change in uk

New crops
New salt marshes
New wetlands

11

Environmental threats of climate change in uk

Wildfires
Agricultural land lost due to sea levels
Cliff collapse

12

Social threats of climate change

Beaches may be eroded
Heatwaves kill elderly
Water shortages

13

Social opportunities of climate change

Festivals
Tourism
Boosted construction and manufacturing industry

14

How do volcanoes contribute to climate change

Eruptions throw out large volume of gas and ash into atmosphere
Stop sun heat reaching earth by forming mirror
Earth cools down

15

How do oceans contribute to climate change

Ocean winds push heat across planet
Change in winds = change in temperature

16

How do the milankovitch cycles cause climate change?

Heat different parts of planet

17

What are the three cycles?

Oblong shape of orbit
Tilt of axis
Direction of axis

18

How does the earths wonky orbit cause climate change?

Different levels of radiation reach earth at different times

19

How does the earths tilt contribute to climate change?

The earth orbits on a /
So when one side is away from the sun, the other gets more heavy. The larger the slant, the larger the difference in season temperatures

20

difference between weather and climate

weather is more specific, day to day whilst climate is measured over a period of time

21

what is the holocene?

the last 10,000 years of warmer climate

22

what is the glacial period?

a period of colder climate

23

what is the pleistocene

the last period of glacial climate, which started 1.8 m years ago

24

what is the quaternary period?

the current section of earth history

25

what is an interglacial period?

a period of warmer climate

26

what is an ice core?

a tube of ice extracted so scientists can study the weather in a specific timeframe

27

difference between winter snow and summer snow in an ice core

summer snow is lighter - wasn't as much

28

role of isotopes in an ice core

there are the isotopes 16O and 18O. More 16O and the earth was colder

29

what is the sea ice maximum?

the maximum area covered by ice each year in the arctic

30

how can the sea ice maximum tell us about climate?

the more ice, the colder the year was

31

how can glaciers tell us about climate change?

by comparing past pictures, we can see how much of the glacier has melted = hotter weather

32

how can global temperature data tell us about climate change?

compare data gathered from recent years

33

how can paintings and diaries tell us about climate change?

we can study past pictures and diaries and compare them o the conditions today

34

how can fossils tell us about climate change

different species tend to favour certain climates and we can look at their adaption

35

what are the three things the Milankovitch cycle measures?

Eccentricity
Tilt
Precession

36

what is eccentricity and what effect dos it have on the climate

how circular the earth's orbit around the sun is (the more circular, the hotter earth gets)

37

what is axial tilt and what effect does it have on the climate?

the tilt of the earth on the axis, a greater angle of tilt = warmer temperatures

38

what is precession and what effect does it have on climate?

it is the earth's 'wobble'
makes some places experience very long days and others very long nights

39

what happens when a volcano erupts and what effect does it have on climate

spews ash and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere
particles act like mirrors and reflect suns rays
winds circulate this dust so the temperature decreases

40

what ar sun spots and what effect do they have on climate?

a area of darkness appearing on the sun's surface. They increase the temperature of earth

41

what are the four main greenhouse gases

halocarbons, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane

42

where is CO2 made

deforestation, industrialisation, cars

43

where is methane produced

rice production, cows

44

where are halocarbons produced

air conditioning, packaging, aerosols

45

where is nitrous oxide produced?

fertilisers, car exhausts

46

what is the greenhouse effect?

the natural way where some of the sun's heat is reflected out to space and some is conserved

47

what is the enhanced greenhouse effect?

when we thicken the layer of greenhouse gases surrounding earth so the temperature increases and less heat is lost