Flashcards in Changing Landscapes Deck (25):
examples of igneous rocks
granite and basalt
examples of metamorphic rocks
slate and schist
examples of sedimentary rocks
chalk and clay
how are sedimentary rocks formed?
Formed in layers. When rocks are eroded the debris was transported and deposited. The deposited rock builds up in layers called sediments the weight of the sediment causes the layers at the bottom to become compacted, forming sedimentary rocks.
how are igneous rocks formed?
When magma cools igneous rocks are formed.
What are intrusive igneous rocks? Name a characteristic.
Intrusive igneous rocks are igneous rocks that cool slowly below the Earth's surface. They have coarser crystals.
What are extrusive igneous rocks? Name a characteristic.
Extrusive igneous rocks are igneous rocks that cool quickly above the Earth's surface. They have finer crystals
How are metamorphic rocks formed?
When igneous or sedimentary rocks adept under immense heat or pressure metamorphic rocks are formed.
what is a crystal?
a piece of a solid substance having a natural geometrically regular form with symmetrically arranged plane faces
what is the composition?
what a material consists of.
what are resistant rocks?
strong rocks that can withstand weathering and erosion.
what are fossils?
the remnants of prehistoric organisms, such as a fish skeleton or a leaf imprint, which have become imbedded in a rock.
what is texture?
the feel and appearance of a material.
what is the tees exe line?
the tees exe line divides the highlands and the lowlands of Britain.
what are the rocks like in the highlands?
Older and harder.
what type of rock is found in the highlands?
Sedimentary rock such as limestone, sandstone and coal. Igneous rock such as granite and metamorphic rock such as slate.
where is slate common?
in the South West, Wales, the Lake District and Scotland.
what are the rocks like in the lowlands?
Softer sedimentary rock and are easily eroded to form low lying areas such as the London and Hampshire basins.
what types of softer sedimentary rocks are found in the lowlands?
chalk, limestone, sandstone and clay
what do the harder rocks in the lowlands form?
The harder rocks form the hills and ridges like the Chilterns and Cotswolds
where are the highlands?
North and West
where are the lowlands?
South and East
what is mechanical (physical) weathering?
the physical break up of rocks due to changes in temperature e.g. frost shattering.
what is biological weathering?
When the orris of trees got into cracks and joints forcing the rocks apart.