Chap 10-14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 10-14 Deck (53):
1

Wealth

The value of a person's or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income producing property

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Prestige

The regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others

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Power

Ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others

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Power elite

A small groups of top leaders from corporations, politics, and military

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Social mobility

The movement ff individuals or groups from one lever in a stratification system to another

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Intergenerational mobility

The social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next

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Intragenerational mobility

Social movement of individuals within their own lifetime

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Open system

Boundaries between hierarchies may be influenced

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Closed system

Boundaries between hierarchies are rigid, people's position are set by ascribed status

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Master-Slave system

An extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others and is a closed system

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Caste system

Relatively rigid stratification system in which people's position are ascribed and fixed and is a closed system

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Class system

Relatively open system in which people's position are achieved and changeable

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Horizontal mobility

Occurs when people experience a gain or loss in position and or income that does not produce a change in their place in the class structure

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Vertical mobility

Movement up or down in the class structure

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Reputational method

Method of identifying social classes by selecting a group of people and asking them to rank others

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Subjective method

Asking people to rank themselves

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Objective method

Method of identifying social classes using income, occupation, and education to rank people

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Upper Class

Comprised of people who own substantial income producing assists

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Upper middle class

Consists of people in highly profitable careers based on university degrees and authority on the job

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Middle class

Made up of people with a minimum of a high school diploma or a community college degree

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Working class

Consist of primarily of those who have little education and whose jobs are manual and carry little prestige

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Lower class

Characterized by poverty and joblessness

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Life chances

Refer to the likelihood of a good, long, successful life in a society

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Absolute poverty

Refers to the lack of minimum food and shelter necessary for maintaining life

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Relative poverty

Refers to the state of deprivation resulting from having less that the majority of the people

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Feminization of poverty

Refers to huge number of women bearing the burden of poverty, mostly as single mothers or heads of families

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Blame the poor theories

The poor are believed to have failed to grab opportunities by not working hard

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Modernization theory

A model of economic and social change that explains global inequality in terms of differing levels of the technological development among societies

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Dependency theory

States that rich nations exploit poor ones for power and commercial gain, thereby perpetuating poverty, underdevelopment, and dependency on rich nations

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Dominant group

One that is advantages and has superior resources and rights in a society

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Subordinate group

One whose members are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who are regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination

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White privilege

Rights or immunities granted to people as a particular benefit or favor simply because they are white

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Race

Socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important

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Ethnicity

A shared cultural heritage. Share common ancestry and or cultural religious customs

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Symbolic ethnicity

An emphasis on such concerns as ethnic food or political issues rather than on deeper ties to one's ethnic heritage

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Social construction of race

The process by which people come to define a group as a race based in part on physical characteristics, but also an historical, cultural, and economic factors

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Prejudice

A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial group

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Stereotype

Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group

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Ethnocentrism

The tendency to assume that one'a own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others

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Racism

Belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior

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The function aggression hypothesis

States that people who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression toward others
The object of their aggression becomes the scape goat

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Authoritarian personality

Personality type characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking

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Exploration theory

States that racism keeps members of subordinate groups in low paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with cheap labor

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Racial profiling

Arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than a person's behavior

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Contact hypothesis

States that interracial contact between people of equal status who are engaged in a cooperative task will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon precious stereotypes

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Discrimination

The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias
Action or practice

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Isolate discrimination

Harmful action taken by a member of the dominant group against a member of the subordinate group. This occurs without the support of other group members

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Small group discrimination

Harmful action intentionally taken by a limited number of dominant group members against members of subordinate groups

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Direct institutionalized discrimination

Norma set by organizations or communities that have a negative impact on members of subordinate groups

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Indirect institutionalized discrimination

Practices that may have a harmful effect on subordinate group members even though these norms or regulations were initially established with no intent to harm

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Glass ceiling

Refers to an invisible barrier that blocks promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individuals gender, race, or ethnicity

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Affective action

Refers to the positive efforts to recruit members of subordinate groups or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities

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Social stratification

Refers to a system in which some people get fewer or more rewards than others