Chap 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 12 Deck (23):
1

Naturalizing discourses

The deliberate representation of particular identities (eg. caste, class, race, ethnicity, and nationality) as if they were a result of biology or nature rather than history or culture, making them appear eternal and unchanging

2

Nation-state

an ideal political unit in which national identity and political territory coincide

3

Nations

groups of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and even the same physical substance.

4

Nation-building, or nationalism

the attempt made by government officials to instill a sense of nationality into the citizens of of a state

5

Transformist hegemony

A nationalist program to define nationality in a way that preserves the cultural domination of the ruling group while including enough cultural features from subordinated groups to ensure their loyalty

6

Objectification

The international construction of a collective public identity; it is the process that produces what we commonly think as ethnicity

7

Reification

A form of negative racial or ethnic absolutism that encourages the violent elimination of targeted groups and is central to the practice of racism.

8

Ethnic groups

Social groups that are distinguished from one another on the basis of ethnicity

9

Colourism

A system of social identities negotiated situationally along a continuum of skin colours between black and white

10

Social Race

An achieved status with a racial label in a system of stratification that is composed of open, class like categories to which racial labels are assigned

11

Racialism

Belief in the existence of biologically distinct races

12

Racism

The systematic oppression of one or more socially defined races by another socially defined race that is justified in terms of the supposedly inherent biological superiority of the rulesrs and the supposed inherent biological inferiority of those they rules

13

Varna

A caste that refers to the widespread notion that indian society is divided into four functional subdivisions priests warriors farmers and merchants.

14

Jāti

A caste that refers to localized named endogamous

15

Clientage

The institution linking individuals from upper and lower levels in a stratified society.

16

Patron

The party of superior status clientage.

17

Client

The Party of inferior status in a clientage

18

Class

A ranked gorup within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth occupation and or acces to power

19

Caste

A ranked group whose membership is based on inherited social roles. caste systems are closed (individuals cannot move from one caste to another), ant they combine elements of tribal affiliation, endogamy, class, occupation, mores, and ritual

20

Race

A broad human propulation category that allegedly corresponds to distinct heritable sets of biological attributes and often conflates geographic ancestry and physical type

21

Ethnicity

A social classification based on a common cultural heritage and selected cultural features such as language, religion, or dress. Ethnicity emerges from historical processes that incorporate distinct social groups into a single political structure under conditions of inequality

22

Nationality

A sesnse of identification with and loyality to a nation-state; membership defined by citizenship, in a geopolitical sovereign state.

23

Stratified societies

societies in which there is a permanent hierarchy that accords some members priviledged access to wealth power and prestige