chap 13-16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chap 13-16 Deck (65):
1

what's another name for red blood cells

erythrocytes

2

on average how long does a red blood cell live

120 days

3

what are the two parts of the hemoglobin molecule

iron and protein

4

what does hemoglobin do

carry O2 and CO2 and gives color

5

what are three types of granulocytes

neutrophils eosinophils and basophils

6

describe the homeostasis of red blood cell production

O2 levels go down kidneys secrete EPO EPO stimulates red bone marrow red bone marrow releases cells

7

neutrophils

are the most common WBC travel around the body

8

eosinophils

kill parasites in activate allergic reaction are commonly found in digestive system and lungs

9

basophils

secrete Heparin and histamine prevent clotting get blood vessels to leak

10

two types of agranulocytes

lymphocytes and monocytes

11

lymphocytes

provide long-term immunity T cells and B cells

12

monocytes

highly phagocytic stay in one place and turn into macrophages

13

what particles play a role in clotting

platelets

14

what kind of cell do platelets come from

megakaryocytes

15

what is another name for platelet

thrombocyte

16

what three things help prevent blood clots from forming in blood vessels

endothelium anticoagulation heparin

17

what determines a person's blood type

antigens on the blood cell

18

what blood type makes a person a universal donor

o

19

what antigens and antibodies does O blood type have

no antigens

20

what blood type is the universal recipient

AB

21

under what circumstances will a person develop RH antibodies

pregnancy Rh negative people and blood transfusion where you get Rh negative blood

22

what part of the EKG tracing represents the electrical current through the Atria

the P wave

23

what part of the EKG tracing represents the electrical current through the ventricles

QRS

24

what EKG tracing represents the electrical current for repolarization

T wave

25

what is starlings law

greater you stretch the heart the more forcefully it's going to contract

26

what is preload

amount of pressure stretching the heart when blood comes back

27

what is contractility

the force the heart contracts

28

what is afterload

what the heart has to do to work against

29

what is cardiac output

stroke volume x heart rate

30

what blood vessels merge together to bring blood from the digestive organs to the portal vein

inferior mesenteric vein and Superior mesenteric vein

31

what are three factors that affect blood pressure

blood volume cardiac output and resistance

32

where is blood flow the slowest

capillaries

33

where is blood pressure the lowest

venacava

34

what six hormones raise the blood pressure

antigens 1 and 2 renin aldosterone ADH epinephrine and norepinephrine

35

what one hormone lowers blood pressure

ANP

36

What mechanisms bring blood back to the heart

respiratory pump skeletal muscle pump valves inside the veins

37

how are lymph vessels similar to veins

they have valves to prevent backflow and flow towards the heart

38

how are lymph vessels different from veins

gaps between cells are big and lymph vessels

39

what are four functions of the spleen

immunity store blood break down rbc's hemopoiesis (make rbc)

40

what are five types of non specific immunity

Bagels interferons complement proteins inflammation fever

41

what are the three parts of the upper respiratory system

nose sinus mucus and fluid

42

what is the importance of the epiglottis

closes the windpipe

43

what is the purpose of cartilage rings in the trachea and bronchi

protection and prevent collapsing

44

what membrane covers the lungs

pleural membrane

45

how many layers does it have and what are they called

two layers

46

what happens in the alveoli

gas exchange blood in lungs breathe out CO2 and water

47

what happens when the atmospheric pressure is higher than the pressure in the lungs

inhalation

48

surfactant

chemical that prevents alveoli from collapsing

49

nasal cavity

warms and moistens the air

50

medulla oblongata

contains the inspiratory and expiratory centers

51

parietal pleura

lines the inside of the thoracic cavity

52

sinuses

secrete mucus into nasal cavity

53

visceral pleura

covers the surface of the lungs

54

megakaryocytes

a very large cell that sheds platelets

55

leukocyte

a white blood cell

56

reticulocyte

an immature red blood cell

57

what do helper T cells do

release cytokines to attract neutrophils and natural killer cells

58

what do cytotoxic T cells do

destroy cells infected with viruses

59

what do memory T-cells do

remember previous pathogens to prevent future infections

60

what factors determine cardiac output

stroke volume and heart rate

61

what do monocytes do

migrate to many different tissues and become macrophages

62

what do B lymphocytes do

are wbc's they produce antibodies

63

what do T lymphocytes do

directly attack infected or cancerous cells

64

what blood type has A antibodies

type B

65

what blood type has A antigen on rbc's

type A