Chap 14, Lymphatic and Immune Systems, Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 14, Lymphatic and Immune Systems, Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 14, Lymphatic and Immune Systems, Vocabulary Deck (44)
1

adaptive or acquired immunity

The ability to recognize and remember specific antigens and mount an attack on them. Humoral (B cells) and cell-mediated immunity (T cells) are examples.

2

adenoids

Mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx.

3

antibody

Protein produced by B cells to destroy antigens.

4

antigen

Substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response. Most antigens are proteins or protein fragments found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or organ transplant tissue cells.

5

axillary nodes

Lymph nodes in the armpit (underarm).

6

B cell (B lymphocyte)

Lymphocyte that matures into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.

7

cell-mediated immunity

T cells (cytotoxic, helper and suppressor) that respond to antigens and destroy them; a type of adaptive immunity.

8

cervical nodes

Lymph nodes in the neck region.

9

complement system

Proteins in the blood that help antibodies kill their target.

10

cytokines

Proteins secreted by cytotoxic T cells to aid in antigen destruction. Examples are interferons and interleukins.

11

cytotoxic T cell

Lymphocyte that directly kills antigens; call CD8-positive T cell.

12

dendritic cell

Antigen-presenting cell. Shows T and B cells what to attack.

13

helper T cell

Lymphocyte that aids B cells and stimulates T cells. Also called CD4-positive T cell.

14

humoral immunity

B cells produce antibodies after exposure to specific antigens; type of adaptive immunity.

15

immunity

Body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that damage tissues and organs. This includes natural immunity and adaptive immunity.

16

immunoglobulins

Antibodies such as IgM, IgA, IgG, IgE, IgD; secreted by plasma cells (mature B cells) in response to the presence of an antigen.

17

immunotherapy

Use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat or prevent disease.

18

inguinal nodes

Lymph nodes in the groin region.

19

interferons

Proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells and other cells to aid and regulate the immune response.

20

interleukins

Proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes.

21

interstitial fluid

Fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries.

22

lymph

Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body.

23

lymph capillaries

Tiniest lymphatic vessels.

24

Lymphoid organs

Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland.

25

lymph node

Collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels; contains cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) that fight infection.

26

lymph vessel

Carrier of lymph throughout the body; lymphatic vessels empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest.

27

macrophage

Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues of the body. Phag/o means to eat or swallow.

28

mediastinal nodes

Lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic (chest) cavity.

29

mesenteric nodes

Lymph nodes in the mesentery (intestinal region).

30

monoclonal antibody

Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells; useful in immunotherapy.

31

natural immunity

Protection that an individual is born with to fight infection such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells. It is not antigen specific and does not elicit memory.

32

paraaortic nodes

Lymph nodes near the aorta in the lumbar (waist) area of the body.

33

plasma cell

Lymphocyte that secretes antibodies. It matures from B lymphocytes.

34

right lymphatic duct

Lymphatic vessel in the chest that drains lymph from the upper right part of the body. It empties lymph into a large vein in the neck.

35

spleen

Organ in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that destroys worn-out red blood cells, activates lymphocytes, and stores blood.

36

suppressor T cell

Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T cells. Also called a Treg (regulatory T cell).

37

T cell (T lymphocyte)

Lymphocyte that acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals (cytokines) such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens.

38

tolerance

The ability of T lymphocytes to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as "self" or friendly. Once tolerance is established, the immune system will not react against the body.

39

thoracic duct

Large Lymphatic vessel that drains lymph from the lower and left side of the body (head, neck, arm, and chest). It empties lymph into large veins in the neck.

40

thymus gland

Lymphoid organ in the mediastinum that conditions T cells to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response.

41

tonsils

Masses of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx.

42

toxin

Poison; a protein produced by certain bacteria, animals, or plants.

43

vaccination

Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein (antigen) that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that possesses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection.

44

vaccine

Weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease.

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