Chap 18, Endocrine System, Vocabulary, Related Terms Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 18, Endocrine System, Vocabulary, Related Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 18, Endocrine System, Vocabulary, Related Terms Deck (14)
1

catecholamines

Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine is a catecholamine.

2

corticosteroids

Hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex. Examples are cortisol (raises sugar levels), aldosterone (raises salt reabsorption by kidneys), and adrogens and estrogens (sex hormones).

3

electrolyte

Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells; potassium, sodium, and calcium are electrolytes.

4

glucocorticoid

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism. Cortisol raises blood sugar and is part of the stress response.

5

homeostasis

Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.

6

hormone

Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland.

7

hypothalamus

Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. It secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland. Hypothalamus produces and secretes hormones [antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and oxytocin (OT)] directly to the posterior pituitary gland, where the hormones are stored and then released.

8

mineralocorticoid

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.

9

receptor

Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.

10

sella turcica

Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.

11

sex hormones

Steroids (androgens and estrogens) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics.

12

steroid

Complex substance related to fats (derived from a sterol, such as cholesterol), and which many hormones are made. Examples of steroids are estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids. Ster/o means solid; -ol means oil.

13

sympathomimetic

Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline (epinephrine) is a sympathomimetic hormone (it raises blood pressure and heart rate and dilates airways).

14

target tissue

Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.

Decks in Medical Terminology, LOM Class (88):