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Flashcards in Chap 22 Deck (77)
1

Defenses of the GI tract against pathogens include


A. Mucus, acid and saliva

B. Secretory IgA and lysozyme

C. Peristalsis

D. GALT

E. All of the choices are true

E

2

The mucinous glycoprotein covering teeth that streptococci attach to is called the


A. Enamel

B. Pellicle

C. Gingiva

D. Lactoferrin

E. Oral membrane

B

3

Which organ of the GI tract has a large commensal population of microorganisms?


A. Liver

B. Salivary glands

C. Pancreas

D. Large intestine

E. Small intestine

D

4

The most common infectious disease in humans is


A. The common cold

B. Dental caries

C. Pharyngitis

D. Diarrhea

E. Gastritis

B

5

The main causes of dental caries seem to be


A. Streptococcus pyogens

B. Streptococcus mutans

C. Streptococcus sobrinus

D. Both A and B are correct

E. Both B and C are correct

E

6

Oral flora bacteria on the tooth surface


A. Develop a biofilm

B. Use fimbriae and slime layers to adhere

C. Include streptococci that metabolize sucrose, produce sticky glucans and form plaque

D. Lactobacilli and streptococci ferment carbohydrates and produce acids that cause caries

E. All of the choices are correct

B

7

Gingivitis


A. Is primarily caused by oral flora anaerobes

B. Involves the formation of calculus and plaque

C. Involves a crevice in the gum along the tooth

D. May involve archaeal species

E. All of the choices are correct

E

8

All of the following are true of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) except


A. Involves Treponema vincentii, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium

B. Associated with severe pain, bleeding, pseudomembrane and necrosis

C. Due to poor oral hygiene, altered host defenses or prior gum disease

D. Very communicable

E. Common in AIDS

D

9

The causative organism for mumps is


A. Paramyxovirus

B. Morbillivirus

C. Streptococcus pyogenes

D. Corynebacterium

E. Vibrio

A

10

The virulence factor for mumps is


A. Inflammation

B. Acid production

C. Endotoxin

D. Enterotoxin

E. Spike-induced syncytium

E

11

Orchitis and epididymitis is seen in young adult males as a complication of


A. Croup

B. Mumps

C. Influenza

D. Measles (rubeola)

E. Rubella

B

12

Helicobacter pylori causes


A. Gastritis

B. Duodenal ulcers

C. Stomach ulcers

D. Increased risk for stomach cancer

E. All of the choices are correct

E

13

Which is not a characteristic of Helicobacter pylori?


A. Gram negative

B. Produces enteroxin that causes diarrhea

C. Curved rods

D. Lives in the stomach

E. Produces urease that buffers stomach acidity

B

14

Which of the following is mismatched?


A. H antigen – flagellar

B. K antigen - capsule

C. O antigen - cell wall, somatic

D. All of the choices are correct

E. None of the choices are correct

D

15

Salmonella are


A. Methane producers

B. Motile

C. Gram positive rods

D. Lactose fermenters

E. All of the choices are correct

B

16

Typhoid fever has the following characteristics except


A. Spread by ingestion of food contaminated with animal feces

B. Transmitted by ingesting fecal contaminated food and water

C. Chronic carriers have pathogen in their gallbladder

D. Infect the small intestine with fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain

E. Becomes a septicemia, spreads to lymph nodes and spleen and causes liver abscesses

A

17

Salmonelloses are


A. Not caused by Salmonella typhi

B. Associated with undercooked poultry and eggs and reptile and rodent feces

C. Gastroenteritis with vomiting and diarrhea

D. Treated with fluid and electrolyte replacement

E. All of the choices are correct

E

18

Salmonella typhi


A. Multiplies within phagocytes and lymph nodes

B. Does not cause typhus

C. Can be treated with antimicrobials

D. Causes invasive infection of the small intestine

E. All of the choices are correct

E

19

Which is incorrect about shigellosis?


A. Outbreaks have occurred in day care centers

B. Watery diarrhea with bloody, mucoid stools and abdominal cramps

C. Frequently involve septicemia

D. Human carriers cause fecal transmission

E. Also called dysentery

C

20

Shigella species have the following characteristics except


A. Not motile, gram-negative rods

B. Reservoir is human carriers

C. They produce urease and hydrogen sulfide

D. Infect the large intestine

E. Produce enterotoxin called shiga toxin

C

21

E. coli O157:H7 characteristics include all the following except it


A. Only causes occupational illness in people who work with animals

B. Is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated, undercooked food, especially hamburger

C. Causes a bloody diarrhea

D. Has a reservoir of cattle intestines

E. Some cases go on to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with possible kidney failure

A

22

Which of the following is not a virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7?


A. Secretes shiga exotoxin from a bacteriophage

B. Secretes shiga exotoxin from the E. coli chromosome

C. Protein called intimin for host attachment

D. Type III secretion system

E. Provides the receptor for intimin to attach to the host

B

23

Which of the following is not true of Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)?


A. Causes traveler's diarrhea

B. Has an A-B, heat labile exotoxin

C. Has heat-stable exotoxins

D. A high fever is present

E. Mainly effects the small intestine

D

24

Which of the following is not true of Enterovasive E. coli (EIEC)?


A. Produces shiga toxin

B. Invades gut mucosa

C. Blood and pus in the stool

D. No heat-labile or heat-stable exotoxins

E. High fever is present

A

25

Escherichia coli infections


A. Are often transmitted by fecal contaminated water and food

B. Include EIEC that destroys gut mucosa

C. Involve enterotoxin in traveler's diarrhea

D. That are self-limiting with the only treatment being rehydration

E. All of the choices are correct

E

26

All of the following are characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni except


A. Transmitted through ingestion of contaminated chicken, meat, milk and water

B. Causes fever and a watery to bloody diarrhea

C. Infects the stomach

D. Produces an enterotoxin that stimulates diarrhea

E. Gram negative curved rods with darting motility

C

27

The most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the United States is


A. E. coli

B. Salmonella

C. Shigella

D. Campylobacter

E. Yersinia

D

28

Campylobacter infection has all of the following characteristics except


A. Can last over two weeks

B. Burrow into the mucosa of the ileum and multiply

C. Can lead to Guillain-Barre syndrome

D. Can cause acute temporary paralysis

E. Is caused by a shiga toxin

E

29

Which is true of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis?


A. Y. pseudotuberculosis causes tuberculosis

B. Intense pain caused by inflammation of the ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes

C. Causes Guillain-Barre syndrome

D. Are gram-positive

E. Passed only through direct contact

B

30

Production of enterotoxin is a characteristic of


A. Clostridium botulinum

B. Clostridium perfringens

C. Clostridium difficile

D. Clostridium tetani

E. All of the choices are correct

C

31

All of the following pertain to Clostridium difficile infection except it is


A. Due to ingestion of contaminated, improperly stored, cooked meats and gravies

B. A colitis that is a superinfection

C. Often has en endogenous source

D. Associated with disruption of normal flora due to broad spectrum antimicrobials

E. The major cause of diarrhea in hospitals

A

32

Which is not true of Clostridium difficile?


A. A gram-positive, endospore forming rod

B. Part of normal intestinal biota

C. Infection precipitated by broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy

D. Also called pseudomembranous colitis

E. Produces "rice-water" stools

E

33

The virulence of Vibrio cholerae is due to its


A. Capsule

B. Neurotoxin

C. Invasive enzymes

D. Enterotoxin

E. All of the choices are correct

D

34

Cholera symptoms are


A. Copious watery diarrhea

B. Loss of blood volume

C. Acidosis, sunken eyes, thirst

D. Hypotension, tachycardia, shock

E. All of the choices are correct

E

35

The most immediate and important treatment needed to prevent death in Cholera victims is


A. Water and electrolyte replacement

B. Antimicrobials

C. Antitoxin

D. Surgery

E. None of the choices are correct

A

36

"Rice water stools" are associated with disease caused by which organism?


A. Vibrio vulnificus

B. Vibrio parahaemolyticus

C. Vibrio cholerae

D. Campylobacter jejuni

E. Helicobacter pylori

C

37

Outbreaks of which apicomplexan disease have been associated with fecal-contaminated drinking water?


A. Cryptosporidiosis

B. Cyclosporiasis

C. Trichinosis

D. Toxoplasmosis

E. None of the choices are correct

A

38

Symptoms of cryptosporidiosis include


A. Headache, sweats, vomiting, severe abdominal cramps and diarrhea

B. Chills, fever, sweats

C. Bloody, mucus-filled stools and fever

D. A red skin papule that spreads to a large ulcer

E. None of the choices are correct

A

39

The primary viral cause of chronic diarrhea, globally is


A. Cryptosporidium

B. Rotavirus

C. Adenovirus

D. Norovirus

E. Astrovirus

B

40

Which of the following is not a normal causative agent of acute diarrhea with vomiting (food poisoning)?


A. Clostridium perfringes

B. Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin

C. Clostridium difficile

D. Bacillus cereus

E. All of the choices are correct

C

41

A common food intoxication is caused by enterotoxin-producing strains of


A. Staphylococcus aureus

B. Staphylococcus epidermidis

C. Staphylococcus saprophyticus

D. Streptococcus pyogenes

E. Streptococcus agalactiae

A

42

Which is incorrect about Staphylococcus aureus food intoxication?


A. Food gets contaminated by a human carrier

B. Common associated foods include custards, ham, cream pastries, processed meats

C. After contamination, food must be left unrefrigerated for a few hours

D. Ingestion of the pathogen allows it to multiply and damage the GI tract lining

E. Symptoms come on quickly and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

D

43

Outbreaks of which apicomplexan disease have been associated with fecal-contaminated imported raspberries and also fresh greens and drinking water?


A. Cryptosporidiosis

B. Cyclosporiasis

C. Trichinosis

D. Toxoplasmosis

E. None of the choices are correct

B

44

Entamoeba histolytica is acquired by


A. Ingestion of cysts of the pathogen

B. Contaminated food

C. Contaminated water

D. Anal-oral sexual contact

E. All of the choices are correct

E

45

All of the following can be transmitted by drinking contaminated water except


A. Cryptosporidiosis

B. Cyclosporiasis

C. Malaria

D. Campylobacter

E. Giardiasis

C

46

Giardiasis involves


A. A protozoan that does not form cysts

B. Infection of the large intestine

C. Symptoms of abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea

D. Vector transmission

E. All of the choices are correct

C

47

Inflammation of the liver with necrosis of the hepatocytes and swelling due to a mononuclear response is a disease called


A. Hepatitis

B. Jaundice

C. Liver cancer

D. Mononucleosis

E. None of the choices are correct

A

48

Hepatitis B virus


A. Is principally transmitted by blood

B. Transmission risks include shared needles, anal intercourse and heterosexual intercourse

C. Is transmitted to the newborn from chronic carrier mothers

D. Has many chronic carriers

E. All of the choices are correct

E

49

Hepatitis B infection


A. Has an incubation of 2 to 7 weeks

B. Can be transmitted by the fecal-oral route

C. Increases risk for hepatocellular cancer

D. Is responsible for most cases of posttransfusion hepatitis

E. All of the choices are correct

C

50

Which is incorrect about hepatitis A infection?


A. Transmitted by the oral-fecal route

B. Has flu-like symptoms with discomfort near the liver and darkened urine

C. Predisposes a person for liver cancer

D. Immune globulin therapy helps decrease the severity

E. HAVRAX is an inactivated vaccine for prevention

C

51

Which is mismatched?


A. Hepatitis A virus – nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA enterovirus

B. Hepatitis B virus – enveloped DNA virus

C. Hepatitis C virus – RNA virus

D. Hepatitis D virus – defective RNA virus that coinfects with HAV

E. Hepatitis E virus – self-limiting RNA virus

D

52

The most common cause of liver cancer in the US is


A. HAV

B. HBV

C. HCV

D. HDV

E. HEV

C

53

Parasitic helminthes have the following characteristics except


A. Are multicellular animals

B. Have a definitive host where the adult form lives

C. Have larval forms that do not affect humans

D. Include roundworms

E. Include tapeworms

C

54

Ascaris lumbricoides


A. Is an intestinal roundworm

B. Spreads to humans by ingestion of Ascaris eggs in food

C. Larvae penetrate into lymphatics and capillaries around intestines

D. Larvae migrate to the pharynx, get swallowed and return to intestines to mature

E. All of the choices are correct

E

55

Enterobius vermicularis is


A. A whipworm

B. Common only to the tropics and subtropics

C. An intestinal worm that easily contaminates fingers and fomites

D. Often fatal in heavy infestations

E. All of the choices are correct

C

56

All of the following pertain to tapeworms except


A. Scolex is the head

B. Strobila is made up of proglottids

C. Proglottids are reproductive segments

D. Cysticerci are young infective larvae ingested in undercooked meat

E. Eosinophilia does not occur

E

57

General symptoms of helminth infection includes all of the following except


A. Eggs, larvae or adult worms found in feces

B. Increased sensitivity to helminth antigens

C. Intense abdominal pain

D. Increased eosinophil count

E. Vague nausea

C

58

Trichinosis includes all the following except


A. Encysted larvae get ingested

B. Associated with undercooked pork or bear meat

C. Migrate from intestines to blood and various body tissues

D. Coiled larvae encyst in skeletal muscle

E. All of the choices are correct

E

59

Liver flukes live in all the following areas except


A. Small intestine

B. Liver

C. Gallbladder

D. Bile duct

E. All of the choices are true

A

60

Which of the following is not true of schistosomiasis?


A. Caused by blood flukes

B. Larvae called cercariae can invade intact skin

C. Snail is the intermediate host

D. Worms can invade the brain

E. Can "cloak" itself with proteins in the blood

D

61

Which of the following infections involves intermediate development in snails and freshwater fish?


A. Opisthorchis sinensis

B. Clonorchis sinensis

C. Fasciola hepatica

D. Both A & B

D

62

Which of the following helminths is paired with a correct characteristic(s) of its pathogenesis?


A. Ascaris lumbricoides- life and transmission cycle B

B. Necator americanus- life and transmission cycle A

C. Ancylostoma duodenale- life and transmission cycle A

D. Strongyloides stercoralis- life and transmission cycle B

D

63

T or F
In the absence of dietary carbohydrates, bacteria do not cause tooth decay

T

64

T or F
Mumps causes permanent sterility in young male adults

F

65

T or F
E. coli O157:H7 secretes shiga exotoxin.

T

66

T or F
Antibiotics are used to treat E. coli O157:H7 caused diarrhea

F

67

T or F
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) cause gut effacement with shiga toxin

F

68

T or F
The best treatment for acute diarrhea is oral replacement of electrolytes and water

T

69

T or F
Only feces from humans that contaminate food and water can be involved in transmission of amebiasis.

F

70

T or F
Boiling will not kill Giardia lamblia cysts in contaminated water

F

71

T or F
Carriers of hepatitis B virus are not common

F

72

T or F
There are vaccines for immunity to the hepatitis B virus

T

73

T or F
The only body fluid that can transmit hepatitis B virus is blood

T

74

T or F
Most antihelminth medications act only against the worms, not the human host

F

75

T or F
There are no infectious agents that can invade intact skin

F

76

T or F
Research does not indicate a link between the numbers and types of bacteria causing periodontitis and thicker carotid arteries in an individual.

F

77

T or F
Despite acidic conditions, some microorganisms have been found residing within the human stomach.

T