Chap 27 Radiation Flashcards Preview

Vascular Surgery > Chap 27 Radiation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 27 Radiation Deck (14):
1

List examples of non-ionizing radiation.

US, MR, laser, microwave

2

List examples of ionizing radiation.

xray, gamma rays

3

What is absorbed dose.

Amount of energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation per unit mass of matter

4

What is equivalent dose?

Measure of radiation dose to tissue and accounts the different degrees of damage by different types of radiation

5

What is effective dose?

Accounts for the body part by weighing the equivalent dose by a tissue factor

6

what are biological effects of radiation?

result in cell death
dermatitis, cataracts, infertility, organ atrophy or fibrosis
Radiation sickness.

7

What are stochastic effects of radiation?

cause damage to DNA
cancer
heritable genetic defects

8

How do you reduce radiation?

use higher tube voltage and less current
lower frame rate
pulsed fluoro
large image intensifier
limit use of magnification
collimation
minimize duration of fluoro
distance from tube, keep close to patient
barriers

9

How do you reduce radiation?

use higher tube voltage and less current
lower frame rate
pulsed fluoro
large image intensifier
limit use of magnification
collimation
minimize duration of fluoro
distance from tube, keep close to patient
barriers

10

What are different contrast agents?

ionic iodine
non-ionic iodine
CO2
gadolinium

11

How to maximize image during arteriography?

limit movement
breathing maneuvres
proper positioning

12

What views for
arch
carotids
right subclavian

30 LAO
AP, Lat, 45 ipsi AO
RAO

13

How does iodinated contrast cause renal failure?

filtered by glomerulus with no reabsorption
osmotic gradient creats intratubular pressure and vasoc and decreased GFR
this create regional tubular ischemia

14

What does gadolinium cause?

nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
fibrosis of skin joints eye internal organs