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Flashcards in Chap 3 Deck (47):
1

Most complex system in the human body

Nervous system

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Two parts of the nervous system

Central and peripheral

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Basic unit of the nervous system

Neuron

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The neuron has 3 functions namely:

Afferent
Efferent
Connecting

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Sensory neurons that carry nerve impulses from sensory stimuli towards the central nervous system

Afferent neurons

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Motor neurons that carry neural impulses away from the central nervous system

Efferent

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Connects neurons within specific regions of the central nervous system

Connectin Neurons

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A complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body

Central nervous system

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A part of the neuron with hairlike structures attached to the cell body, it receives impulses from other neurons and direct it towards the cell body

Dendrite

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A part of the neuron where nucleus of the cell is found, aka cell body

Soma

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A part of the neuron with tail like structure attached to the cell body, it directs impulses away from cell body

Axon

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A part of the neuron which speeds the conduction of neural impulses, it is a fatty covering found on axons

Myelin sheath

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Two kinds of axon

Myelinated
Umnyelimated

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Most abundant cells in the body

Glia cells
Neuroglia

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Gap between axon of a neuron and dendrite of another neuron; neurons can communicate through this

Synapse

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Wave of electro chemical disturbance propagated along a nerve fiber

Nerve impulse

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Bundles of neurons consisting of axons with myelin sheath

White matter

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Bundles of neurons consisting of axons without myelin sheath

Gray matter

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Bundles of neurons found in the central nervous system

Tracts

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Bundles of neurons found in the peripheral nervous system

Nerves

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Contains medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and pons varoli

Controls functions outside conscious control such as breathing and blood flow

Hind brain

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Serves important functions in motor movement
Contains neurons for visual and auditory functions; connects cerebrum with brains stem and spinal cord

Midbrain

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Plays a central role in the processing of information related to complex cognitive activities, sensory and associative functions
Has three main structures

Forebrain

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The brains major relay station
Here lies the cell bodies of important connecting neurons of various senses

Thalamus

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A complex loosely defined network of nerve fibers; serves to activate the forebrain
When broke = permanent coma

Reticular formation

30

Receives sensory messages from visceral organs and helps control their activities
Plays a big role in emotions, memory, motivation, reinforcement

Limbic system

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Main area involved with emotions
Fundamental for self reservation

Amygdala

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Involved with memory= formation of long term memory

Hippocampus

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Controls sleep walking cycles, heart action, digrstion, breathing and other vital processes
Most important control center for the visceral functions of the body

Hypothalamus

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Largest part of the brain
Also plays important role inn governing memory and intelligence

Cerebrum

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The four lobes of cerebrum

Occipital
Temporal
Parietal
Frontal

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Lobe for the sight

Occipital

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Lobe for hearing

Temporal

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Lobe for sensation and perceptionjand integrating sensory input

Parietal

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Lobe for motor/kinesthetic

Frontal

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Encased in cranial bones
Mot special organ in the body which contains largest amount of nerve cells

Brain

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The nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system

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Responsible for the activation of smooth muscles; beyond voluntary control

Autonomic

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Controls all striated muscles

Somatic

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Pituitary gland which produces a number of different hormones

Endocrine glands

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Secrete hormones which influence the body’s metabolism, blood chemicals
Influence the part of the nervous system involved in response and defense against stress

Adrenal glands

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Secrete hormones that influence female and male characteristics

Gonads

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Secretes a hormone (insulin)

Islets of langerhans

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Secretes a hormone that maintains the calcium level in the blood

Parathyroid glands

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Plays a role in the body’s immune system

Thymus gland

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Produces hormones that stimulate body heat production, bone growth and body metabolism

Thyroid gland

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Composed of nerve connections running between the brain and the various parts of the body

Spinal cord