chap 9+10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chap 9+10 Deck (95):
1

Cognition

mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

2

concept

mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people, you get a concept of something

3

prototype

mental image or best example of a category like your project prototype

4

algorithm

step by step procedures that guarantes a solution like in math

5

heuristic

simpler thinking strategies, quicker but more error prone than algorithms. similar to how we have to remember some letters and we group similar letters together

6

insight

sudden realization of a problems solution; contrasts strategy based solutions

7

confirmation bias

when we look for information that confirms what we believe, not contradicts what we believe

8

mental set

or Fixation, tendency to approach a problem with the mindset of what has worked before

9

intuition

essentially our gut feeling, it is effortless

10

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

11

overconfidence

when we over estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements

12

belief perservance

clinging to your belief and idea even after its been proven wrong

13

framing

way an issue is posed or presented, it affects decisions and judgements
- like how macdonalds makes their burgers look nice but they are nasty and nothing like it

14

creativity

ability to produce new and valuable ideas

15

convergent thinking

narrowing available problem solutions to determine the best solution
ex. SAT

16

divergent thinking

expanding answer to a number of possible solutions
ex. how many uses of a brick can you think of

17

robert sternberg's five components of creativity

1. expertise
2. imaginative thinking skills
3. a venturesome personality
4. intrinsic motivation
5. a creative environment

18

fixation

such as mental set, may prevent us from
taking the fresh perspective that would lead to a
solution.

19

what is language

spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meanings

20

what does language help with?

communicate everyday, transferring accumulated knowledge, and carries across generations

21

receptive langauge

Infant ability to understand what is said to
them begins around 4 months, when they start to recognize differences in speech sounds

22

productive language

Infant ability to produce words begins around
10 months, when babbling starts to resemble the household language

23

what is an intelligence test?

Method for assessing an individual’s
mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of
others using numerical scores.

24

aptitude test

Tests designed to predict a person’s future
performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

25

achievement test

Tests designed to assess what a person has
learned

26

mental age?

measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet, if child does as well as an average 8 year old, they say their mental age is 8

27

IQ (intelligence quotient

found by mental age over chronilogical age times 100

28

crystallized intelligence

Accumulated knowledge, as reflected
in vocabulary and analogy tests.
• Increases as we age, up to old age.

29

fluid intelligence

Ability to reason speedily and abstractly,
as when solving unfamiliar logic problems
• Decreases with age; declines gradually until age 75. and then more rapidly
after age 85

30

stereotype threat

self-confirming concern that
one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
- so like when chinese women took a test and thought about being chinese they did well
- when they thought about being women they did poorly

31

motivation

need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

32

instinct

complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

33

drive reduction theory

physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

34

incentive

positive or negative stimulus that motivates behavior

35

hierarchy of needs

maslow's period of humans needs, begins with physiological needs that must be satisfied first, then higher level safety needs and needs such as self actualization on top, these on top are more desire and not entirely necessary to survive, basically Focuses on the priority of some needs over others

36

what does instinct theory focus on?

Focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors

37

what does arousal theory focus on?

Focuses on finding the right levels of stimulation

38

homeostasis

The tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry (such as blood glucose) around a particular level.

39

Yerkes-Dodson law?

The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

ex. When taking an exam, for example, it pays to be moderately aroused—alert but not trembling with nervousness.

40

what are examples of yerkes-dodson law?

When taking an exam, for example, it pays to be moderately aroused—alert but not trembling with nervousness.
But optimal arousal depends upon the task, with more difficult tasks requiring lower arousal, and less difficult requiring higher arousal for best performance.

41

what is affiliation need and why do we have it?

The need to build relationships and to feel part of a group.
- Social bonds and cooperation enhanced early ancestors’ survivability
Combat, hunting, and food gathering more successful in groups; survival and reproduction strengthened
Innate need to belong drives us to befriend those who cooperate and avoid our foes (favoring “us” versus “them”)

42

osracism

the deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups

43

narcissim

excessive self love or absorption

44

what is achievement motivation

A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard

45

Grit (in goal achieving)

it involves passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals.

46

set point

Is the point at which the body’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set.
When the body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore the lost weight

47

hunger

desire for food

48

what five things influence our eating?

Arousing appetite, Friends and food, Serving size is significant, Selections stimulate, and Nudging nutrition

49

what is emotion, 3 things?

a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience

50

James-Lange Theory

Arousal comes before emotion
Experience of emotion involves awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
ex. you see the car then your heart starts pounding, then you have fear

51

Cannon-Bard Theory

Arousal and emotion happen at the same time
Emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them
ex. your heart pounds and you have fear at the same time

52

two factor theory

The Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.

53

Schachter-Singer theory?

adds cognitive component. says arousal and cognitive response of "im afraid" happens at the same time then you have the fear or emotion

54

autonomic nervous system

sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

55

face example?

gender neutral face so one happy and one sad, people say sad face is man and happy face is women

56

facial feedback effect

if you put on a smile, you feel more happy, sad face youll feel more sad

57

behavior feedback effect

Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions

58

where does intuition flow from?

our unconscious processing

59

what are robert sternberg's three intelligence's?

practical intelligence, creative intelligence, and analytical intelligence

60

charles spearman's general intelligence

- underlying g factor
- heart of intelligent behavior
- uses Factor Analysis

61

What is Factor Analysis?

is a mathematical way to reduce a large number of variables to a smaller number of variables for an experiment

62

What are Howard gardner's 8 multiple intelligence's that are relatively independent?

Linguistic, logical mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic

63

what is Howard gardner's linguistic intelligence?

spoken and written language skills

64

what is Howard gardner's logical mathematical intelligence?

number skills

65

what is Howard gardner's musical intelligence?

performance or composition skill

66

what is Howard gardner's spatial intelligence?

ability to evaluate and analyze visual world

67

what is Howard gardner's bodily kinesthetic intelligence?

dance and athletic abilities

68

what is Howard gardner's interpersonal intelligence?

skill in understanding and relating

69

what is Howard gardner's intrapersonal intelligence?

skill in understanding self

70

what is Howard gardner's naturalistic intelligence?

skill in understanding natural world

71

what is emotional intelligence?

- ability that yeps people to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
- some say its personality traits such as empathy and extroversion rather than intelligence

72

what is robert sternberg's analytical intelligence?

school smarts; traditional academic problem solving

73

what is robert sternberg's creative intelligence?

ability to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas

74

What is robert sternberg's practical intelligence?

street smarts; skill at handling everyday tasks, which may be ill defined, with multiple solutions

75

Alfred Binet's Predicting school achievement?

• Tended toward an environmental explanation of intelligence differences, assuming that all children follow same course, but not the same rate, of intellectual development.
• Measured each child’s mental age and tested a variety of reasoning and problem-solving questions that predicted how well French children would succeed in school.
• Hoped that his test would be used to improve children’s education, but also feared it might be used to label children and limit their opportunities.

76

What is charles Spearman's general intelligence?

a basic intelligence predicts our abilities in varied academic areas

77

What is Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences?

8 or 9 independent intelligences that encompass our abilities beyond just school smarts.

78

what is robert sternberg's triarchic theory?

our intelligence is best classified into three areas that predict real-world success: analytical, creative, and practical

79

what is emotional intelligence?

consists of perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions

80

longitudinal study?

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time

81

cross-sectional study?

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

82

what is instinct theory (evolutionary perspective)?

Focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors, complex and unlearned such as baby search to suck on nipple in nursing

83

what is drive reduction theory?

a need is identified (such as hunger) that propels a person to do an action that satisfies the need. After doing the action (such as eating) the thing they are tying to reduce, hunger, goes away

84

what is arousal theory?

situation causes you to increase the behavior to do the excitement it stimulates

85

what is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

chart that identifies the basic human need and gets more specific and precise as the pyramid gets smaller. You satisfy the basic needs first and then satisfy the higher level needs

86

What is academic achievement motivation?

desire for significant accomplishment towards academic goals

87

What is hunger?

desire for something either food or a goal

88

what is glucose and what does it do?

Is form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.
Triggers feeling of hunger when at low levels.

89

what is arousing appetite?

Study showed doubled snacking when watching an intense action movie

90

how does friends and food affect hunger?

Presence of others amplifies natural behavior tendencies (social facilitation)

91

how does the serving size affect eating?

Quantity of consumed food is influenced by size of serving, dinnerware

92

how does the selections stimulate eating?

Food variety promotes eating

93

how does nutrition affect eating?

New practices, such as a school lunch tray making fruits and vegetables more prominent, may improve eating habits

94

what is fight or flight response?

get scared and either have to fight or run, or you need to lift a car to save a family member and you lift a car or you gonna get stabbed so you sprint away

95

How is emotion relation to motivation?

when your sad and depressed you won't want to do anything but when your optimistic about something you'll be excited and motivated