Flashcards in chap 9+10 Deck (95):
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people, you get a concept of something
mental image or best example of a category like your project prototype
step by step procedures that guarantes a solution like in math
simpler thinking strategies, quicker but more error prone than algorithms. similar to how we have to remember some letters and we group similar letters together
sudden realization of a problems solution; contrasts strategy based solutions
when we look for information that confirms what we believe, not contradicts what we believe
or Fixation, tendency to approach a problem with the mindset of what has worked before
essentially our gut feeling, it is effortless
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
when we over estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
clinging to your belief and idea even after its been proven wrong
way an issue is posed or presented, it affects decisions and judgements
- like how macdonalds makes their burgers look nice but they are nasty and nothing like it
ability to produce new and valuable ideas
narrowing available problem solutions to determine the best solution
expanding answer to a number of possible solutions
ex. how many uses of a brick can you think of
robert sternberg's five components of creativity
2. imaginative thinking skills
3. a venturesome personality
4. intrinsic motivation
5. a creative environment
such as mental set, may prevent us from
taking the fresh perspective that would lead to a
what is language
spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meanings
what does language help with?
communicate everyday, transferring accumulated knowledge, and carries across generations
Infant ability to understand what is said to
them begins around 4 months, when they start to recognize differences in speech sounds
Infant ability to produce words begins around
10 months, when babbling starts to resemble the household language
what is an intelligence test?
Method for assessing an individual’s
mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of
others using numerical scores.
Tests designed to predict a person’s future
performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
Tests designed to assess what a person has
measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet, if child does as well as an average 8 year old, they say their mental age is 8
IQ (intelligence quotient
found by mental age over chronilogical age times 100
Accumulated knowledge, as reflected
in vocabulary and analogy tests.
• Increases as we age, up to old age.
Ability to reason speedily and abstractly,
as when solving unfamiliar logic problems
• Decreases with age; declines gradually until age 75. and then more rapidly
after age 85
self-confirming concern that
one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
- so like when chinese women took a test and thought about being chinese they did well
- when they thought about being women they did poorly
need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive reduction theory
physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
positive or negative stimulus that motivates behavior
hierarchy of needs
maslow's period of humans needs, begins with physiological needs that must be satisfied first, then higher level safety needs and needs such as self actualization on top, these on top are more desire and not entirely necessary to survive, basically Focuses on the priority of some needs over others
what does instinct theory focus on?
Focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors
what does arousal theory focus on?
Focuses on finding the right levels of stimulation
The tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry (such as blood glucose) around a particular level.
The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases
ex. When taking an exam, for example, it pays to be moderately aroused—alert but not trembling with nervousness.
what are examples of yerkes-dodson law?
When taking an exam, for example, it pays to be moderately aroused—alert but not trembling with nervousness.
But optimal arousal depends upon the task, with more difficult tasks requiring lower arousal, and less difficult requiring higher arousal for best performance.
what is affiliation need and why do we have it?
The need to build relationships and to feel part of a group.
- Social bonds and cooperation enhanced early ancestors’ survivability
Combat, hunting, and food gathering more successful in groups; survival and reproduction strengthened
Innate need to belong drives us to befriend those who cooperate and avoid our foes (favoring “us” versus “them”)
the deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups
excessive self love or absorption
what is achievement motivation
A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard
Grit (in goal achieving)
it involves passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals.
Is the point at which the body’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set.
When the body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore the lost weight
desire for food
what five things influence our eating?
Arousing appetite, Friends and food, Serving size is significant, Selections stimulate, and Nudging nutrition
what is emotion, 3 things?
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
Arousal comes before emotion
Experience of emotion involves awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
ex. you see the car then your heart starts pounding, then you have fear
Arousal and emotion happen at the same time
Emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them
ex. your heart pounds and you have fear at the same time
two factor theory
The Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
adds cognitive component. says arousal and cognitive response of "im afraid" happens at the same time then you have the fear or emotion
autonomic nervous system
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
gender neutral face so one happy and one sad, people say sad face is man and happy face is women
facial feedback effect
if you put on a smile, you feel more happy, sad face youll feel more sad
behavior feedback effect
Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions
where does intuition flow from?
our unconscious processing
what are robert sternberg's three intelligence's?
practical intelligence, creative intelligence, and analytical intelligence
charles spearman's general intelligence
- underlying g factor
- heart of intelligent behavior
- uses Factor Analysis
What is Factor Analysis?
is a mathematical way to reduce a large number of variables to a smaller number of variables for an experiment
What are Howard gardner's 8 multiple intelligence's that are relatively independent?
Linguistic, logical mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic
what is Howard gardner's linguistic intelligence?
spoken and written language skills
what is Howard gardner's logical mathematical intelligence?
what is Howard gardner's musical intelligence?
performance or composition skill
what is Howard gardner's spatial intelligence?
ability to evaluate and analyze visual world
what is Howard gardner's bodily kinesthetic intelligence?
dance and athletic abilities
what is Howard gardner's interpersonal intelligence?
skill in understanding and relating
what is Howard gardner's intrapersonal intelligence?
skill in understanding self
what is Howard gardner's naturalistic intelligence?
skill in understanding natural world
what is emotional intelligence?
- ability that yeps people to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
- some say its personality traits such as empathy and extroversion rather than intelligence
what is robert sternberg's analytical intelligence?
school smarts; traditional academic problem solving
what is robert sternberg's creative intelligence?
ability to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas
What is robert sternberg's practical intelligence?
street smarts; skill at handling everyday tasks, which may be ill defined, with multiple solutions
Alfred Binet's Predicting school achievement?
• Tended toward an environmental explanation of intelligence differences, assuming that all children follow same course, but not the same rate, of intellectual development.
• Measured each child’s mental age and tested a variety of reasoning and problem-solving questions that predicted how well French children would succeed in school.
• Hoped that his test would be used to improve children’s education, but also feared it might be used to label children and limit their opportunities.
What is charles Spearman's general intelligence?
a basic intelligence predicts our abilities in varied academic areas
What is Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences?
8 or 9 independent intelligences that encompass our abilities beyond just school smarts.
what is robert sternberg's triarchic theory?
our intelligence is best classified into three areas that predict real-world success: analytical, creative, and practical
what is emotional intelligence?
consists of perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
what is instinct theory (evolutionary perspective)?
Focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors, complex and unlearned such as baby search to suck on nipple in nursing
what is drive reduction theory?
a need is identified (such as hunger) that propels a person to do an action that satisfies the need. After doing the action (such as eating) the thing they are tying to reduce, hunger, goes away
what is arousal theory?
situation causes you to increase the behavior to do the excitement it stimulates
what is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
chart that identifies the basic human need and gets more specific and precise as the pyramid gets smaller. You satisfy the basic needs first and then satisfy the higher level needs
What is academic achievement motivation?
desire for significant accomplishment towards academic goals
What is hunger?
desire for something either food or a goal
what is glucose and what does it do?
Is form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.
Triggers feeling of hunger when at low levels.
what is arousing appetite?
Study showed doubled snacking when watching an intense action movie
how does friends and food affect hunger?
Presence of others amplifies natural behavior tendencies (social facilitation)
how does the serving size affect eating?
Quantity of consumed food is influenced by size of serving, dinnerware
how does the selections stimulate eating?
Food variety promotes eating
how does nutrition affect eating?
New practices, such as a school lunch tray making fruits and vegetables more prominent, may improve eating habits
what is fight or flight response?
get scared and either have to fight or run, or you need to lift a car to save a family member and you lift a car or you gonna get stabbed so you sprint away