Chaper 3- The Molecules Of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chaper 3- The Molecules Of Life Deck (50):
1

Organic compounds

The study of carbon-based molecules

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Functional group

the groups of atoms directly involved in chemical reactions

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Macromolecule

Giant molecule formed by smaller molecules
Examples: proteins, polysaccharides, and nuclei can acids.

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Polymer

A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalent lay joined together into a chain

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Monomers

A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer

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Dehydration reaction

A chemical process in which a polymer forms when monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules. One molecule of water is removed for each pair of monomers linked. The atoms in the water molecule are provided by the two monomers involved in the reaction. A dehydration reaction is essentially the reverse of a hydrolysis reaction.

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Hydrolysis

A chemical process in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; essential part of digestion. A hydrolysis reaction is essentially the opposite of a dehydration reaction.

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Carbohydrates

A biological molecule consisting of a simple sugar ( a monosaccharide), two monosaccharides joined into a double sugar ( a disaccharide), or a chain of monosaccharides (a polysaccharide).

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Monosaccharides

Simple sugars, The smallest kind of sugar molecule; a single-unit of sugar; also known as a simple sugar.

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Isomers

one of two or more molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures and thus different properties. example : anagrams- words that contain the same letters in a different order such as heart and earth.

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disaccharide

double sugar; a sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction. most common one is sucrose (table sugar) which is glucose and fructose.

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Polysaccharides

complex carbohydrates; a carbohydrate polymer consisting of many monosaccharides (simple sugars) linked by covalent bonds. example: starch

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Starch

a storage polysaccharide found in the roots of plants and certain other cells; a polymer of glucose.

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Glycogen

a complex, extensively branched polysaccharide made up of many glucose monomers; serves as a temporary energy-storage molecule in liver and muscle cells.

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Cellulose- aka fiber

the most abundant organic compound of earth, forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plant cells and is a major component of wood and other structural components of plants. example: fruits, vegetable, whole grains, bran, and beans.

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hydrophilic

water loving; molecules that dissolve readily in water.

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lipids

are hydrophobic; organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds and therefore mostly hydrophobic and insoluble in water. Lipids include fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids.

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hydrophobic

water fearing; pertaining to nonpolar molecules, which di not dissolve in water.

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Fat

a large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride. Most fats function as energy-storage molecules.

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Triglyceride

a dietary fat that consists of a molecule of glycerol linked to three molecules of fatty acids.

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Unsaturated

The bottom fatty acid bends where there is a double bond in the carbon skeleton because it has fewer than then maximum number of hydrogens at the double bond.

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Saturated

Fatty acids in the fat molecule lack double bonds in their tails meaning they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, giving them a straight shape.

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atherosclerosis

cardiovascular disease caused by diets rich in saturated fats; lipid-containing deposits called plaque build up along the inside walls of blood vessels. reducing blood flow and increasing risk of heart attacks and strokes.

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hydrogenation

the artificial process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen.

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trans fat

type of unsaturated fat that is particularly bad for your health- unsaturated fatty acid produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and present in hardened vegetable oils, most margarines, many commercial baked foods, and many fried foods.

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steroids

a type of lipid with a carbon skeleton in the form of four fused rings: three 6 sided rings and one 5 sided rings. Examples: are cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.

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proteins

worker bees of the body; a biological polymer constructed from hundreds to thousands of amino acid monomers. Proteins perform many functions within living cells, including providing structure, transport, and acting as enzymes.

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Amino acid

consists of a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners.
Carboxyl group
Amino group
Hydrogen group
Variable side chain a.k.a. radical group or R group

serves as the monomer of proteins

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peptide bond

the bond that joins adjacent amino acids; formed by dehydration reaction between two amino acids.

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Polypeptide

a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.

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nucleic acids

macromolecules that store information and provide the instructions for building proteins.

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DNA

genetic material that organisms inherit form their parents; a double-stranded helical macromolecule.

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RNA

type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers; usually single stranded; functions in protein synthesis and a genome of some viruses.

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Gene

a unit of inheritance encoded in a specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.

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Nucleotides

an organic monomer consisting of five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. They are the building blocks of nucleic acids; including DNA and RNA.

36

Compare and contrast the similarities and differences in the structure and composition of DNA and RNA.

Similarity:Both are polymers of nucleotides.
Difference: Presence of ribose and uracil in RNA, and RNA is usually found in living cells in single-stranded form, whereas DNA usually exists as a double helix.

37

List three components of a nucleotide

a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate, and a nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) base.

38

Describe the structure and function of a gene

provides the directions to build a molecule of RNA, which can then be translated into a protein.

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List the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA

DNA: Adenine (A), Cystosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T).
RNA: Adenine (A), Cystosine (C), Guanine (G), and Uracil (U)

40

List and describe the 4 levels of protein structure, including what important interactions act to stabilize or reinforce each level of structure.

The amino acid sequence of a protein is called its
(a) primary structure. Hydrogen bonds form between nearby amino acids, producing
(b) fold-backs called beta-pleated sheets and coils called alpha helices. These fold-backs and coils constitute the protein’s secondary structure. A globular protein folds up on itself further to assume a three-dimensional
(c) tertiary structure. Many proteins aggregate with other polypeptide chains in clusters; this clustering is called the
(d) quaternary structure of the protein

41

Recognize the general structure of an amino acid:

carboxyl group (--COOH), an amino group (--NH2), and a hydrogen atom. Variable component is the side chain or R group and its attached to the fourth bond in the central carbon.

42

Recognize the structure of triglycerides and the characteristic four fused ring structure of steroids.

Structure of triglycerides: C55H98O6
Four fused ring structure of steroids: three 6-sided rings and one 5-sided ring.

43

Match each of the macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids with their corresponding building blocks.

Carbohydrates serve many purposes, from energy to structure to chemical communication, as monomers or polymers.
◾Lipids, which are hydrophobic, also have different purposes, including energy storage, structure, and signaling.
◾Proteins, made of amino acids in up to four structural levels, are involved in just about every process of life.
◾The nucleic acids DNA and RNA consist of four nucleotide building blocks, and each has different purposes.

44

list and describe the nutritional importance of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

Carbs: Simple and complex carbohydrates are the main source of energy in most diets. Although used by all cells, carbohydrates are especially important for the normal functioning of the central nervous system, brain and red blood cells.
Lipids: Although fat intake is often associated with weight gain, obesity and risk of heart disease, fat is an essential nutrient required in small amounts to maintain health. Fats are crucial for absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. They help form and maintain cell membranes, insulate and cushion vital organs and are a concentrated source of energy.
Proteins: The proteins in your body carry out many functions, ranging from forming organ tissues to making antibodies that fight infection. They are present in every cell of your body, including muscles, bones, skin, nails and hair, and are critical for synthesis of hormones, enzymes, DNA and RNA.

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functional group

group of atoms directly involved in chemical reactions

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hydrocarbon

simplest organic compounds in terms of chemical composition which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms

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fatty acid

a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in fats and oils.

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unsaturated hydrocarbon

fatty acid with fewer than the max number of hydrogens at the double bond

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saturated hydrocarbon

contain the max number of hydrogen atoms, giving them a straight shape

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denaturation

protein unraveling or loss in shape due to change in either temperature or pH