CHAPT 1 : intro to organic mechanisms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPT 1 : intro to organic mechanisms Deck (11)
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1

Identify the four main types of reactions.

addition
Elimination
substitution
rearrangement

2

what is addition

2 reactants are added tgt to form a single new product
double bonds becomes single bonds

3

what is elimination reaction

small molecule is removed or eliminated from a larger molecule
2 products , double bonds are formed

4

what does unsaturated means

double bonds

5

what is substitution

2 reactants exchange atoms to give 2 new products

6

what is the difference between Homolytic fission and Heterolytic fission

homolymtic fission: one of the 2 bonding electrons goes to each atom ( radicals)
- atoms are highly reactive because the unpaired electrons has a strong tendency to pair up with another electron from another substance

heterolytic fission : both of the 2 bonding electrons goes to only one atom ( ions )
- results in polar reactions

7

what is elementary step

reaction here the reactants are transformed directly into products, without the formation of intermediates .
- rate determining step matches with overall equation

8

energy profile diagram:
1. PE increases
2. PE decreases

1. endothermic reaction
2. exothermic reaction

9

definition of electrophile and nucleophiles

electrophile : electron loving , accepts electrons , neutral or positively charged
nucleophiles : nucleus loving , donates electrons, neutral or negatively charged

10

Define ‘Lewis acid’ and ‘Lewis base’ and relate them to electrophiles and nucleophiles.

Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors so they are electrophiles
Lewis bases are electron pair donor so they are nucleophiles

11

describe the flow of electrons

electrons always flows from an electron rich source (-) to electron deficient source (+)
electrons flows from nucleophiles to electrophiles