Chapter 03 - Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 03 - Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Deck (40)
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1

idiographic understanding

an understanding of a particular individual

2

assessment

the process of collecting and interpreting relevant information about a client or research participant

3

standardization

the process in which a test is administered to a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual's score can be measured

4

reliability

a measure of the consistency of test or research results

5

validity

a measure of the accuracy of a test's or study's results

6

clinical interview

a face-to-face encounter

7

mental status exam

a set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client's abnormal functioning

8

clinical test

a device for gathering information about a few aspects of a person's psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred

9

projective test

a test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret of respond to (inkblots, ambiguous pictures, open-ended instructions)

10

Rorschach test

inkblot test

11

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a pictorial projective test

12

personality inventory

a test, designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them

13

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

the most widely used personality inventory in which the participants respond to 500 statements with "true," "false," or "cannot say"

14

response inventories

tests that measure a person's responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes

15

psychophysiological test

a test that measures physical responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological

16

neurological test

a test that directly measures brain structure or activity

17

EEG (electroencephalogram)

a neurological test that records brain waves, the electrical activity that takes place within the brain as a result of neurons firing

18

neuroimaging techniques (brain scans)

neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity, such as CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs

19

CAT scan (computerized axial tomography, CT scan)

neurological test in which X-rays of the brain's structure are taken at different angles and combined

20

PET scan (positron emission tomography)

a computer-produced motion picture of chemical activity throughout the brain

21

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

a procedure the uses the magnetic property of certain hydrogen atoms in the brain to create a detailed picture of the brain's structure

22

fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)

converts MRI pictures of brain structures into detailed pictures of neuron activity

23

neurophysiological test

a test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances

24

battery

a series of neuropsychological tests, each targeting a specific skill area

25

intelligence test

a test designed to measure a person's intellectual ability

26

intelligence quotient (IQ)

an overall score derived from intelligence tests

27

naturalistic observation

a type of observation where clinicians observes clients in their everyday environments

28

analog observation

a type of observation where clinicians observe clients in an artificial setting, such as a clinical office or laboratory

29

self-monitoring

an observation technique in which the clients are instructed to observe themselves

30

diagnosis

a determination that a person's problems reflect a particular disorder

31

syndrome

a cluster of symptoms that usually occur together

32

classification system

a list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnoses

33

DSM-5

the most widely used classification system for mental disorders

34

categorical information

refers to the name of the particular category (disorder) indicated by the client's symptoms

35

dimensional information

a rating of how severe a client's symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across various dimensions of personality

36

empirically supported treatment (evidence-based treatment)

therapy that has received clear research support for a particular disorder and has corresponding treatment guidelines

37

therapy outcome study

study that measures the effects of various treatments

38

rapprochement movement

a movement to identify a set of common factors, or common strategies, that run through all successful therapies

39

common factors (common strategies)

similar things that may run through different types of therapies that have all shown success

40

psychopharmacologist

a psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications