Chapter 04 - Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Related Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 04 - Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Related Disorders Deck (40)
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1

Fear

The central nervous system's physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one's well-being.

2

Anxiety

The central nervous system's physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger.

3

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

A disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities

4

Client-Centered Therapy

The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing accurately, and conveying genuineness.

aka - person-centered therapy

5

basic irrational assumptions

The inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems, according to Albert Ellis.

6

rational-emotive therapy

A cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder.

7

metacognitive theory

Adrian Wells; theory that people with generalized anxiety disorder implicitly hold both positive and negative beliefs about worrying.

8

intolerance of uncertainty theory

Theory that certain individuals with generalized anxiety disorder cannot tolerate the knowledge that negative events may occur, even if the possibility of occurrence is very small.

9

avoidance theory

Thomas Borkovec; people with generalized anxiety disorder have great bodily arousal than other people, and that worrying serves to reduce this arousal by distracting them from the unpleasantness.

10

family pedigree study

a research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder.

11

benzodiazepines

the most common group of anti-anxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax.

12

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

A neurotransmitter whose low activity in the brain's fear circuit has been linked to anxiety.

13

brain circuits

networks of brain structures that work together, triggering each other into action.

14

sedative-hypnotic drugs

Drugs that calm people at lower doses and help them fall asleep at higher doses.

15

phobia

A persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation

16

specific phobia

A severe and persistent fear of a specific object or situation.

17

agoraphobia

An anxiety disorder in which a person is afraid to be in public situations from which escape might be difficult or help unavailable if panic-like or embarrassing symptoms were to occur.

18

classical conditioning

A process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become tied together in a person's mind and so produce the same response.

19

modeling

A process of learning in which a person observes and then imitates others. Also, a therapy approach based on the same principle.

20

preparedness

A predisposition to develop certain fears.

21

exposure treatment

treatment in which persons are exposed to the objects or situations they dread.

22

systematic desensitization

An exposure treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread.

23

flooding

An exposure treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and intensively to a feared object and made to see that it is actually harmless.

24

social anxiety disorder

A severe and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur.

25

social skills training

A therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role-playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors.

26

panic attacks

periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak within minutes, and gradually pass.

27

panic disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks.

28

locus coeruleus

A small are of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions. Many of its neurons use norepinephrine.

29

biological challenge test

A procedure used to produce panic in participants or clients by having them exercise vigorously or perform some other potentially panic-inducing task in the presence of a researcher or therapist.

30

anxiety sensitivity

A tendency to focus on one's bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful.

31

obsession

A persistent thought, idea, impulse, or image that is experienced repeatedly, feels intrusive, and causes anxiety.

32

compulsion

A repetitive and rigid behavior or mental act that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety.

33

obsessive-compulsive disorder

A disorder in which a person has recurrent obsessions, compulsions, or both.

34

neutralizing

A person's attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking or behaving in ways that put matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts.

35

exposure and response prevention

A cognitive-behavioral technique used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his or her compulsive acts.

aka - exposure and ritual prevention

36

obsessive-compulsive-related disorders

Disorders in which obsessive-like concerns drive people to repeatedly and excessively perform certain abnormal patterns of behavior.

ex: body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder

37

hoarding disorder

A disorder in which individuals feel compelled to save items and become very distressed if they try to discard them, resulting in an excessive accumulation of items.

38

trichotillomania

A disorder in which people repeatedly pull out hair from their scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, or other parts of the body.

aka - hair-pulling disorder

39

excoriation disorder

A disorder in which people repeatedly pick at their skin, resulting in significant sores or wounds.

aka - skin-picking disorder

40

body dysmorphic disorder

A disorder in which individuals become preoccupied with the belief that they have certain defects or flaws in their physical appearance. Such defects or flaws are imagined or greatly exaggerated.