Flashcards in Chapter 1&2 Deck (63)
What is psychology?
Science in the study of the mind and behavior
What is a hypothesis?
Educated guess, possible solution
What are the steps in the scientific method?
1. Identify the problem
2. Make observation
3. Form a hypothesis
4. Test your hypothesis
5. Decide if your hypothesis was right or wrong based on your test results
6. If right: make and test further predictions
7. If wrong: go back and create a new hypothesis
What is objectivity?
Looking at things as unemotionally and as impersonally as possible.
Keep personal feelings out of it because they can cloud your judgement
What does biological viewpoint emphasize?
The importance of biological factors in effecting our behavior
What does cognitive viewpoint emphasize?
The importance of what goes on inside the individual's mind. Through process, morals and values, personality
What does social-behavioral viewpoint emphasize?
The importance of the environment in effecting behavior
What is the key concept in the scientific method?
What is generally the best viewpoint?
All of them
What is the eclectic approach?
A combination of all 3 viewpoints
What are subjects?
The people or animals being studied
What are variables?
Things that can change or vary
What are independent variables?
The things that are controlled by the experimenter.
What the experimenter does to get a response, causes the dependent
What are dependent variables?
The subjects reaction to the independent variable
Depends on what you did to them
What are intervening variables?
Internal processes that connect the independent and dependent variables
Possible explanation for the variable on why they act that way
Can't be observed directly
What must we remember about intervening variables?
They are only guesses, never 100% sure
Other possible explanation
Power explanations do....
What are experimental groups?
Groups of subjects you experiment, or try something new, on
Gets the independent variable
What are control groups?
Groups of subjects to whom you compare experimental groups
Don't get the independent variables
Help to rule out some of those possible explanations
What is a between subjects design?
Different groups getting different treatments
But individual subjects within those groups getting only one of the treatments
What is a within subjects design?
When each subject is tested more than once, under different conditions, to see if results change when independent variables change
What are some techniques for collecting data?
What are you doing when you are observing?
Watch and take notes of the behavior you are interested in
What is interviewing?
Ask the subject questions and record their responses
What is a questionnaire?
Similar to an interview
Difference is the questions are written downer on computer
What is a case study?
In depth look at one particular subject using all of the other techniques for collecting data and could last for years
What are some methods of studying hum an behavior?
What is naturalistic observation?
Observing a subject in a natural environment
Don't interact with the subject, could effect their natural behavior
What is experimentation?
Attempt to control certain factors that you believe effect behavior
Independent/dependent, cause and effect statements
What is correlation?
The relationship of one factor to another
Related not cause and effect
What is a positive correlation?
If one factor increase the other factors does, if one factor decrease the other one does as we'll
What is a negative correlation?
If one factor increase the other factor decrease, vice versa
What is a correlation coefficient?
A number that tells us the direction and strength of the correlation
Range from -1.0 - +1.0
Perfect correlation is 1
What is the master organ of the body and why?
Controls everything and contains what makes you, you such as thoughts, education, personality
Also controls heart beat, breathing, and other functions
How much does the brain weigh?
About 3 lbs
What are neurons?
How many neurons are contained in the brain?
Almost a trillion neurons
What is the cortex?
Thin outer layer of your brain that is quarter of an inch thick and covers the entire cerebrum
How does the cortex receive information?
Through sensory pathways
Which is anything associated with your 5 senses
What happens in the cortex?
Contains your consciousness, moment to moment experience
What are sensory pathways?
Bundles of nerves that feed information about the outside world into your brain for processing
What does the cortex do to process information?
1. Pay attention to the incoming information
2. Checks your memory files (what do we know)
3. Decides how to respond based on what is found in your memory files
How does the cortex send out commands?
Through the motor pathways
What does motor mean?
Muscles or having to do with movement
What are motor pathways?
Bundles of nerves running from your brain out to your muscles and glands, telling them what to do
What's do neural sub centers do?
Aft as a filter for your cortext
As the information come in it goes through the sub centers
What other action do neural sub centers do?
Control your autonomic responses (breathing, heartbeat, digestion, complex body movements like walking, etc)
What is the cerebrum?
Largest part of your brain
The big, thick mushroom shaped "cap"
What may happen to you if the input neurons of your brain were disturbed?
Suffer from hallucinations
What are hallucinations?
Experience things that are not there
Damaged neurons change the message, cortex process the wrong message
What might happen to you if the processing neurons were disturbed?
Suffer memory loss
Overact or under act to things
Lose consciousness or enter a coma
What is a coma?
Unusual form of deep sleep from which you could not normally be awakened, typically caused by brain injury, drugs, or fever
If your output neurons are disturbed...
Suffer a loss of muscular coordination
Trip when nothing is there
Suffer from paralysis (none of the messages reach the muscles)
What is motor epilepsy?
A muscular seizure caused by brain damage
What is a grand mal seizure?
Most severe form of motor epilepsy
The purpose of individual neurons in your brain is to...
Pass information from one part of your body to another
What are dendrites?
Network of tiny fibers at the front end, or input side, of a neuron
Receive information from other neurons
Look like tv antenna/tree branches
What is a soma?
Main part of the cell, containing its nucleus and regulating its metabolism
Can also receive information from other neurons but not as well as the dendrites
What are axons and axonic fibers?
The output or tail end of the neuron, ending in tiny fibers
Make indirect contact with the dendrites and somas of other neurons, or with muscles or glands
What is an insulating sheath?
Also called the mylin sheath
a support cell separated from the neuron, which speeds up neural transmission and keeps neural messages from getting mixed up
Like the rubber that protects inside wires
What is the resting potential of a neuron?
The amount of energy stored up by the nerve cell, which can be discharged in a short burst
What is the action potential?
The wave of electro chemical energy that sweeps down the axon of the neuron when the nerve cell releases it's resting potential and fires