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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (31):
1

Describe the psychophysical level of analysis

How a person's perception relates to the stimulus in the environment

stimulus: lightbulb

perception: "very bright"

2

Transduction

converting external stimuli into electrical signals

2

Describe search as a way to measure perception

Find one stimuli among many as quickly as possible

reaction time matters

3

Weber's fraction

DL/standard

4

absolute threshold

the minimum stimulus intensity that can be detected

5

Describe "description" as a way of measuring perception

describing what you perceive

phenomenological (experiential)

not an empirical measure; can't be quantified

5

Possible participant errors with the method of limits

Perseveration - tendency to make same response past threshold

Anticipation - tendency to change response before threshold

6

Response expansion

related to magnitude estimation

as physical intensity increases, the perceptual response increases more rapidly

(increase in perceived magnitude is higher/faster than increase in stimulus intensity)

7

Describe recognition as a way to measure perception

Involves categorizing stimuli

You can have perception without recognition (ex: prosopagnosia/face blindness)

7

difference threshold

JNDs

minimum difference between 2 stimuli that you can tell they are different

differenze limen

8

sensory receptors

cells specialized to respond to energy in the environment

each sensory system's receptors are designed to respond to specific types of energy

9

Perception

Psychological

A process

end result is interpretation

11

Describe method of adjustment as a way to measure perception

observer adjusts intensity continuously until they can just barely detect the stimulus

Incremental changes up and down

11

What is the principle of representation?

Everything perceived is based on representations of stimuli that are formed on receptors and the nervous system. Does not involve direct contact. 

12

Describe the method of limits as a way to measure perception

stimulus presented in ascending/descending order

threshold found via average of cross-over points

14

Response compression

related to magnitude estimation

as physical intensity increases, perceptual response increases less rapidly

(perceived magnitude smaller than stimulus intensity)

15

Sensation is to perception as _____ is to ______

physiological

psychological

16

Describe method of constant stimuli as a way to measure perception

How do you identify threshold in this case?

Presentation of different intensities in a random order

Threshold is the intensity that results in detection during 50% of trials

17

Describe the physiological level of analysis

stimuli and physio response

physio responses and behavioral responses

stimulus: light bulb

physiology: receptors respond

19

8 ways to measure perception

  1. Description
  2. Recognition
  3. Magnitude estimation
  4. Search
  5. Detection
  6. Method of limits
  7. Method of adjustment
  8. Method of constant stimuli

20

Describe magnitude estimation as a way of measuring perception

What two things does it measure

Standard stimulus with assigned value

Different intensities of stimuli and subject asked to assign a number to each that is proportional to the standard

Above threshold perceptions

Perceived magnitude

21

Describe detection as a way to measure perception

Used to determine absolute threshold

Assumed that some specific amount of energy will always be perceived and that the stimulus will never be perceived below that level

22

3 types of behavioral responses in the perceptual process

perception

recognition

action

22

What is top-down processing?

Influence of knowledge or prior expectations

23

2 levels of analysis for sensation & perception

psychophysical level

physiological level

25

what is the principle of transformation

stimuli and the responses generated by stimuli are transformed/changed between the environmental stimulus and perception

26

What are the limits to description and recognition as measures of perception?

there is no quantitative relationship between the stimulus and perception

27

Sensation

physiological

neural signals cause by some kind of stimuli in the environment 

29

What type of processing do the last three steps of the perceptual process involve?

(perception, recognition, action)

top-down processing

30

neural processing

the changes signals from receptors undergo as they are transmitted to the brain

31

Pros and cons of method of constant stimuli

Very accurate - many observations and the use of random order

Time-consuming