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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (24):
0

Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that

The present forms of all existing species are the result of natural selection

1

Darwin realized that changes that have occurred in species over time are the result of

Natural selection

2

Which source(s) of data do evolutionary biologist use to treat their hypothesis

All of the following:

Molecular data, data from the fossil record, morphological & behavioral data

3

The primary, but not only, process responsible for the modifications that occur in organisms over geological time is

Natural selection

4

The vast branching tree of historical relationships for all known species that live or ever have lived

All of the above :

Connects evolutionary history to the current diversity of life on earth; is a map that reflects the process of descent with modification; is known as a phylogenetic tree

5

The study of evolutionary biology has influenced the techniques used by the health and livestock industries in which of the following ways?

Physicians often prescribe antibiotics in combination

6

In which of the following scenarios are models being used to make predictions and plan for the future?

Someone checks the weather forecast for the weekend

7

Fisher developed his model partly because so much observational data suggested that the 1:1 sex ratio was common to nature and he wanted to understand why. Is there any natural ordering when it comes to empirical and theoretical approaches?

Good theory can either precede or postdate data collecting

8

Which of the following statements is (are) true in the absence of competition from other males?

B and C:

The quantity of sperm a male used to inseminate a female decreased &
Once a male has inseminated a female, additional sperm may do little to increase the probability of fertilization

9

If chimpanzee and human genomes differ about 1.3% at the level of DNA base pairs, how can we explain the dramatic differences in appearances, behavior, cultures, etc., between humans & chimps?

Important differences exist in the expression of genes in humans & chimps

10

More than 100 years ago, Charles Darwin and his colleague Thomas Huxley hypothesized that humans share a common ancestor based on

anatomical evidence

11

Manipulative experiments

all of the above:

Allow scientists to directly assess how changes in one component of a system influence the other components; allow scientists to examine not only correlations among data, but also causality; ideally after only one variable at a time

12

Each time a species goes extinct

all of the above:

there are evolutionary consequences; part of the evolutionary history of life on earth is lost; a twig on the tree of life is lost forever

13

During the observations of a species of blue moon butterflies on the Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaii, 99% of the butterflies were originally female and only 1% were male, but in only five years the male: female sex ration had returned to nearly the expected 1:1. What caused this?

Evolutionary changes in the butterflies allowed the butterflies to suppress the male-killing effect of Wolbachia

14

Fisher's sex ratio model was put to test with a species of blue moon butterflies on the Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaii. Which of the following statement regarding that study are true?

A & B:

Originally, 99% of the butterflies were female and only 1% were male;
By 2006, the male:female sex ratio had returned to the expected 1:1

15

Fisher's sex ratio model was put to test with a species of blue moon butterflies on the Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaii, which of the following conditions existed?

99% of the butterflies were female and only 1% were male

16

Looking at the table above (of antibiotics/ date introduced/ date resistance observed), predict what will happen if a new antibiotic to the food poisoning bacteria Campylobacter jejuni is developed and prescribed heavily by physicians beginning in 2012

Campylobacter jejuni will be effectively treated for the next 2-5 years

17

Considering the table above (of antibiotics/ date introduced/ date resistance observed), which of the following statements is likely true?

B and C:

Eventually, pharm companies will need to come up w/ new categories of antibiotics that work in ways not yet conceived & Physicians will need to work in locally and globally coordinated ways to assure that newly developed antibiotics aren't over-prescribed

18

In the figure above (the tree based on molecular genetic ribosomal RNA data), branching points closer to the center of the phylogenetic tree represent

important speciation events in the history life

19

According to phylogenetic tree above (the tree based on molecular genetic ribosomal RNA data), fungi are more related to

metazoans

20

Each tip of the phylogenetic tree above represents

a living or extant taxon

21

The loss of which species on the figure above would represent the loss of the most significant phylogenetic diversity?

A (the longest, most closest to the common ancestor branch, with no other branches coming off)

22

If you could protect from extinction only the lineages derived from two of the nodes in the fig above (the one with woolly mammoth extinction and a phylogeny of paenungulata mammals), which pair would you save to yield the greatest phylogenetic diversity?

Nodes E & F (sister taxa Loxodonta africana A and B (E) and sister taxa Dugong dugon and Procavia capensis (F))

23

The figure above (Pizzari's sperm competition experiment), indicates that as the number of male competitors for a single female chicken increased,

the quantity of sperm a male used to inseminate the female increased