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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (32):
1

Characteristic that depends on the level of organization of matter, but does not exist at lower levels of organization

Example:Communities can be described in terms of their diversity-the number and types of different populations they contain- and their stability-the degree to which the populations within the communities remain the same through time.
Life is thus an ____ of the organization of matter into cells

Emergent Properties

2

hierarchy of life

Cell__Multicellular organism__Population__Community__Ecosystem__ Biosphere

3

Individuals consisting of single cells
Example: bacteria and protozoans

Unicellular Organisms

4

Individuals consisting of interdependent cells
Example: plants and animals

Multicellular organisms

5

All the individuals of a single species that live together in the same place and time

Population

6

Populations of all species that occupy the same area

Community

7

Group of biological communities interacting with their shared physical environment

Ecosystem

8

All regions of Earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere that sustain life

Biosphere

9

Large, double-stranded, helical molecule that contains the genetic material of all living organisms

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

10

A polymer assembled form repeating nucleotide monomers in which the five-carbon sugar is ribose. Cellular ___ include mRNA (which is translated to produce a polypeptide), tRNA (which brings an amino acid to the ribosome for assembly into a polypeptide during translation), and rRNA (which is a structural component of ribosomes). The genetic material of some viruses is__

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

11

Molecules that carry out most of the activities of life, including the synthesis of all other biological molecules. Consists of one or more polypeptides depending on it

Protein

12

The biochemical reactions that allow a cell or organism to extract energy from its surroundings and use that energy to maintain itself, grown, and reproduce

Metabolism

13

The conversion of light energy to chemical energy in the form of sugar and other organic molecules

Photosynthesis

14

The process by which energy-rich molecules are broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP

Cellular Respiration

15

Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce
An organized chemical system that includes many specialized molecules surrounded by a membrane

Cell

16

An autotroph usually a photosynthetic organism, a member of the first trophic level

Primary Producers

17

An organism that consumes other organisms in a community or ecosystem

Consumers

18

A small organism, such as a bacterium or fungus, that feeds on the remains of dead organisms, breaking down complex biological molecules or structures into simpler raw material

Decomposers

19

A steady internal condition maintained by responses that compensate for changes in the external environment

Homeostasis

20

The process in which parents produce offspring

Reproduction

21

The transmission of DNA (genetic info) from one generation to the next

inheritance

22

A series of programmed changes encoded in DNA, through which a fertilized egg divides into many cells that ultimately are transformed into an adult, which is itself capable of reproduction

development

23

The sequential stages through which individuals develop, grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce

life cycle

24

The process by which some individuals in a population experience changes in their DNA and pass those modified instructions to their offspring

Biological Evolution

25

Selective breeding of organisms to ensure that certain desirable traits appear at higher frequency in successive generations

artificial selection

26

The evolutionary process by which alleles that increase the likelihood of survival and the reproductive output of the individuals that carry them become more common in subsequent generation

natural selection

27

A unit containing the code for a protein molecule or one of its parts or for functioning RNA molecules such as tRNA and rRNA

genes

28

A spontaneous and heritable change in DNA

mutations

29

Characteristic that helps an organism survive longer or reproduce more under a particular set of environmental conditions

adaptations

30

The collective effort of individuals who worked to understand how living systems function

biological research

31

research conducted to search for explanations about natural phenomena in order to satisfy curiosity and to advance collective knowledge of living system

basic research

32

research conducted with the goal of solving specific practical problems

applied research