Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (91):
Study of the structure of the human body (also called morphology).
Anatomy is closely related to __________.
Physiology: study of the system and body function.
(Seen by dissection): deals with tissues bigger than 0.1 mm. Can be seen by the naked eye.
Study structures of the cells or tissues or microscopic details of various organs (brain or intestine). Tissue sections can be investigated at the light microscopy or electron microscopy levels.
Studies of structures of various systems in body, including skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and respiratory.
Discusses structures in various regions of body, including 1-back and lower limbs, 2-upper limb thorax, 3-abdomen, pelvis, and 4- head and neck regions
Shapes and markings in the body surface (abdominal regions and quadrants)
Deals with the function of body structures
Dealing with the structural changes in body throughout the life
Studying development of the body before birth
The study of structural changes in the tissue caused by a disease.
Radiographic anatomy and anatomy seen by other imaging techniques
Study of the body using X-ray or other imaging techniques, such as magnetic techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET)
Name Major body cavities
Dorsal cavities include ________.
Cranial cavity and vertebral canal
Ventral cavities include _________.
Thoracic and abdominal cavities
-separated by thoracic diaphragm & pelvic cavity, separated from perineum by pelvic diaphragm, levator ani muscle, and ischiococcygeus.
Thoracic cavity contains _______.
-pleural cavity (around the lungs)
-pericardial cavity (around the heart)
Abdominopelvic cavity contains _______.
When standing still and the palms are facing forward
The longitudinal (vertical) axes, transverse (horizontal) axes, and sagittal axes.
Planes are sections throughout the body, or through an organ or body parts, to study the detail of the structures found in that section. The planes include sagittal (median and paramedian) plane, frontal (coronal) plane, and transverse plane.
Toward the front
Toward the back
Toward the abdomen
Toward the back
Upward with body erect
Downward with body erect
Toward the head
Toward the buttocks
Toward the mouth
Within the median plane
Toward the middle
Away from the middle
Toward the limb attachment
Away from the limb attachment
Toward the surface of the body
Toward the center of the body
Bending "flex and bend"
Stretching "extend and stretch"
Away from the body
Toward the body
Pivoting or rotary motion
Circular movement; a combination of movements not as free rotation.
Back hand to palm
Palm to back hand
Produced in a vacuum tube that has a cathode and anode computer. X-ray beam --> emitted and passes through the object to reach an X-ray sensitive film placed in a grid or photographic plate behind or beneath object.
-tissue, high density=white
-none, (example air)= black
(Magnetic resonance imaging)-subjects body to radio waves and a strong magnetic field. Object to be analyzed lies in a chamber, surrounded by large magnet. Magnet is turned on, nuclei of body's hydrogen atoms (protons) act like small magnets, aligning parallel to a strong magnetic field. Object is then exposed to a brief pulse of radio waves, then it's turned off, protons return to their alignment in magnetic field, emitting their own faint radio waves. Sensor detects these radio waves and computer translates them. Any plane: coronal, sagittal, and oblique (CSF is white)
(Positron emission topography): produces images by detecting gamma rays emitted from decay of radio active isotopes injected into the body. Used to asses functional blood flow to the tissues, heart and brain. Mapping increases in blood flow, PET can determine which parts of brain are more active.
Using contrast medium injected around spinal cord (subarachnoid space), it is iodine based.
Drinking barium sulfate contrast medium to study the internal covering layer (mucous membrane) of the digestive tract. Internal covering like intestines (barium ingestion). *transient follow up
Important diagnostic imaging technique that uses ultrasound produced by a device and emitted to the body by means of a probe on the skin. Emitted ultrasound waves are reflected back from the structures, detected by the same probe, and reconverted into electrical energy. This simple probe, reflection of sound. Echolucent measures thickness endometrium and can also detect gall stones.
skeletal system divided into_______.
80 bones, consist of the skull, including auditory bones (malleus, incus, and stapes), the hyoid bone in the neck region,vertebral column, the ribs, and sternum in the thoracic region.
Bones of the shoulder girdle, bones of the upper limb on each side (humerus, ulna, radius...), pelvic (hip) bone, and bones of lower limb on each side
Longer than the wide, these bones have a shaft (diaphysis) and two ends called epiphyses. (Ex. Humerus)
The short bones are small and roughly cube shaped. (Ex. Triquetral)
The flat bones are thin, flattened and usually curved. (Ex. Sternum)
Irregular bones are of various shapes and do not fit into other categories. (Ex. vertebra)
Functions of the bones
-support: provide a hard framework to protect the underlying organs
-movement: provide origin and insertion points to the muscles
-mineral storage: a reservoir for important minerals.
-blood-cell formation (hemopoiesis): bone contains bone marrow, which is found in medullary cavity of the long bones or inside cancellous bones
-triglyceride storage: yellow bone marrow (replace the red marrow with age) consists of fat cells that store triglyceride
Bone cells consist of:
Osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, as well as osteogenic cells (found in the membranes of the bone) that develop into osteoblasts.
Secrete minerals of the matrix, collagen, and other organic material and initiate calcification to create bone.
Secretion, resembling bone. Infiltrated with inorganic salts to form bone
Bone cells entrapped in surrounding matrix. Involved in the daily metabolism of the bone and do not divide
Demineralize bone, are very large cells derived from the fusion if several monocytes, typically associated with the endosteum. Lysosomal acid hydrolysis are released.
Two type of ossification
Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
Bones are ossified directly from mesenchyme, without any pre-existing cartilage. The bones of the skull and clavicle ossify in this manner
Bone development occurring from a pre-existing cartilage (usually hyaline cartilage), this type of ossification occurs in most of the bones in the body
Endochondral ossification events:
1. Formation of bone collar around hyaline cartilage model
2. Cavitation of the hyaline cartilage
3. Invasion of the cavities by the periosteal bud and spongy bone formation
4. Formation of the medullary cavities and secondary ossification centers
5. Ossification of the epiphysis (hyaline cartilage) remains in epiphysial plate and articular cartilages (surfaces)
Ossification at the epiphyseal plate
Responsible for lengthening of bones, continues up to age 21. When diaphysis and epiphysis join together and form the firmest joint between the bones, called primary cartilaginous joint. There is a epiphyseal line. Cartilage cells form tall stacks. Chondroblasts at top of stacks divide quickly and pushes epiphysis away from diaphysis.
Bones lengthen by growth of
Stretching or tearing of the ligaments that reinforce a joint. Sprains can be very painful, and complete rupture of the ligaments required surgical repair or removal
Bones of the joint are forced out of alignment
Partial or incomplete dislocation of the joint
Bursitis and tendinitis
Inflammation of the bursa or tendon
Students elbow or olecranon bursitis
Development of bursa in the posterior aspect of the elbow
Inflammation or degeneration of the joints accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness
An autoimmune disease resulting in severe inflammation of the joints
A kind of rheumatoid arthritis , seen mainly in males, that affect the sacroiliac joints and vertebrae
Degenerative condition involving articular cartilage, primarily in the weight bearing joints
Arthritis caused by bacteria transmitted via tick bites
Functions of muscle tissue
-maintenance of posture
Cleidocranial dystostosis/dysphasia (CCD)
Rare autosomal inherited disorder characterized by defective ossification, delayed bone and tooth development and stomatognathic and craniofacial abnormalities.
Produced by pituitary gland, stimulated epiphyseal plates
Ensures that the skeleton retain proper proportions
Promote bone growth,later induce closure of epiphyseal plates
Low bone mass, bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposition (some women after menopause)
Occurring adults, bones Are inadequately mineralized
In children, analogous to osteomalacia, weak and bowed leg. Malformation of head and ribs
Excessive rate of bone deposition but reduced mineralization leading to bone thickening .
Congenital (genetic disease), defective cartilage growth and defective endochondral ossification leading to dwarfism