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1

Human anatomy

Study of the structure of the human body (also called morphology).

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Anatomy is closely related to __________.

Physiology: study of the system and body function.

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Gross anatomy

(Seen by dissection): deals with tissues bigger than 0.1 mm. Can be seen by the naked eye.

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Histology

Study structures of the cells or tissues or microscopic details of various organs (brain or intestine). Tissue sections can be investigated at the light microscopy or electron microscopy levels.

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Systemic anatomy

Studies of structures of various systems in body, including skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and respiratory.

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Regional anatomy

Discusses structures in various regions of body, including 1-back and lower limbs, 2-upper limb thorax, 3-abdomen, pelvis, and 4- head and neck regions

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Surface anatomy

Shapes and markings in the body surface (abdominal regions and quadrants)

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Functional anatomy

Deals with the function of body structures

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Developmental Anatomy

Dealing with the structural changes in body throughout the life

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Embryology

Studying development of the body before birth

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Pathologic Anatomy

The study of structural changes in the tissue caused by a disease.

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Radiographic anatomy and anatomy seen by other imaging techniques

Study of the body using X-ray or other imaging techniques, such as magnetic techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET)

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Name Major body cavities

*cranial
*thoracic
*abdominal
*pelvic

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Dorsal cavities include ________.

Cranial cavity and vertebral canal

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Ventral cavities include _________.

Thoracic and abdominal cavities
-separated by thoracic diaphragm & pelvic cavity, separated from perineum by pelvic diaphragm, levator ani muscle, and ischiococcygeus.

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Thoracic cavity contains _______.

-mediastinum
-pleural cavity (around the lungs)
-pericardial cavity (around the heart)

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Abdominopelvic cavity contains _______.

-abdominal cavity
-pelvic cavity

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Anatomical position

When standing still and the palms are facing forward

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Principal axis

The longitudinal (vertical) axes, transverse (horizontal) axes, and sagittal axes.

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Principal planes

Planes are sections throughout the body, or through an organ or body parts, to study the detail of the structures found in that section. The planes include sagittal (median and paramedian) plane, frontal (coronal) plane, and transverse plane.

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Anterior

Toward the front

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Posterior

Toward the back

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Ventral

Toward the abdomen

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Dorsal

Toward the back

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Superior

Upward with body erect

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Inferior

Downward with body erect

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Cranial

Toward the head

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Caudal

Toward the buttocks

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Rostral

Toward the mouth

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Median

Within the median plane

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Medial

Toward the middle

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Lateral

Away from the middle

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Proximal

Toward the limb attachment

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Distal

Away from the limb attachment

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Peripheral

Toward the surface of the body

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Central

Toward the center of the body

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Flexion

Bending "flex and bend"

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Extension

Stretching "extend and stretch"

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Abduction

Away from the body

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Adduction

Toward the body

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Rotation

Pivoting or rotary motion

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Circumduction

Circular movement; a combination of movements not as free rotation.

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Supination

Back hand to palm

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Pronation

Palm to back hand

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X-rays

Produced in a vacuum tube that has a cathode and anode computer. X-ray beam --> emitted and passes through the object to reach an X-ray sensitive film placed in a grid or photographic plate behind or beneath object.
-tissue, high density=white
-soft, tissue=gray
-none, (example air)= black

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MRI

(Magnetic resonance imaging)-subjects body to radio waves and a strong magnetic field. Object to be analyzed lies in a chamber, surrounded by large magnet. Magnet is turned on, nuclei of body's hydrogen atoms (protons) act like small magnets, aligning parallel to a strong magnetic field. Object is then exposed to a brief pulse of radio waves, then it's turned off, protons return to their alignment in magnetic field, emitting their own faint radio waves. Sensor detects these radio waves and computer translates them. Any plane: coronal, sagittal, and oblique (CSF is white)

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PET

(Positron emission topography): produces images by detecting gamma rays emitted from decay of radio active isotopes injected into the body. Used to asses functional blood flow to the tissues, heart and brain. Mapping increases in blood flow, PET can determine which parts of brain are more active.

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Myelography

Using contrast medium injected around spinal cord (subarachnoid space), it is iodine based.

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Barium swallow

Drinking barium sulfate contrast medium to study the internal covering layer (mucous membrane) of the digestive tract. Internal covering like intestines (barium ingestion). *transient follow up

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Sonography

Important diagnostic imaging technique that uses ultrasound produced by a device and emitted to the body by means of a probe on the skin. Emitted ultrasound waves are reflected back from the structures, detected by the same probe, and reconverted into electrical energy. This simple probe, reflection of sound. Echolucent measures thickness endometrium and can also detect gall stones.

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skeletal system divided into_______.

-Axial skeleton
-Appendicular Skeleton

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Axial skeleton

80 bones, consist of the skull, including auditory bones (malleus, incus, and stapes), the hyoid bone in the neck region,vertebral column, the ribs, and sternum in the thoracic region.

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Appendicular skeleton

Bones of the shoulder girdle, bones of the upper limb on each side (humerus, ulna, radius...), pelvic (hip) bone, and bones of lower limb on each side

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Long bones

Longer than the wide, these bones have a shaft (diaphysis) and two ends called epiphyses. (Ex. Humerus)

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Short bones

The short bones are small and roughly cube shaped. (Ex. Triquetral)

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Flat bones

The flat bones are thin, flattened and usually curved. (Ex. Sternum)

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Irregular bones

Irregular bones are of various shapes and do not fit into other categories. (Ex. vertebra)

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Functions of the bones

-support: provide a hard framework to protect the underlying organs
-movement: provide origin and insertion points to the muscles
-mineral storage: a reservoir for important minerals.
-blood-cell formation (hemopoiesis): bone contains bone marrow, which is found in medullary cavity of the long bones or inside cancellous bones
-triglyceride storage: yellow bone marrow (replace the red marrow with age) consists of fat cells that store triglyceride

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Bone cells consist of:

Osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, as well as osteogenic cells (found in the membranes of the bone) that develop into osteoblasts.

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Osteoblasts

Secrete minerals of the matrix, collagen, and other organic material and initiate calcification to create bone.

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Osteoid

Secretion, resembling bone. Infiltrated with inorganic salts to form bone

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Osteocytes

Bone cells entrapped in surrounding matrix. Involved in the daily metabolism of the bone and do not divide

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Osteoclasts

Demineralize bone, are very large cells derived from the fusion if several monocytes, typically associated with the endosteum. Lysosomal acid hydrolysis are released.

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Two type of ossification

Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification

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Intramembranous ossification

Bones are ossified directly from mesenchyme, without any pre-existing cartilage. The bones of the skull and clavicle ossify in this manner

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Endochondral ossification

Bone development occurring from a pre-existing cartilage (usually hyaline cartilage), this type of ossification occurs in most of the bones in the body

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Endochondral ossification events:

1. Formation of bone collar around hyaline cartilage model
2. Cavitation of the hyaline cartilage
3. Invasion of the cavities by the periosteal bud and spongy bone formation
4. Formation of the medullary cavities and secondary ossification centers
5. Ossification of the epiphysis (hyaline cartilage) remains in epiphysial plate and articular cartilages (surfaces)

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Ossification at the epiphyseal plate

Responsible for lengthening of bones, continues up to age 21. When diaphysis and epiphysis join together and form the firmest joint between the bones, called primary cartilaginous joint. There is a epiphyseal line. Cartilage cells form tall stacks. Chondroblasts at top of stacks divide quickly and pushes epiphysis away from diaphysis.

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Bones lengthen by growth of

Epiphyseal plates

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Sprains

Stretching or tearing of the ligaments that reinforce a joint. Sprains can be very painful, and complete rupture of the ligaments required surgical repair or removal

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Dislocation (luxation)

Bones of the joint are forced out of alignment

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Subluxation

Partial or incomplete dislocation of the joint

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Bursitis and tendinitis

Inflammation of the bursa or tendon

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Housemaids knee

Prepatellar bursitis

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Students elbow or olecranon bursitis

Development of bursa in the posterior aspect of the elbow

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Arthritis

Inflammation or degeneration of the joints accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness

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Rheumatoid arthritis

An autoimmune disease resulting in severe inflammation of the joints

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Ankylosing spondylitis

A kind of rheumatoid arthritis , seen mainly in males, that affect the sacroiliac joints and vertebrae

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Osteoarthritis

Degenerative condition involving articular cartilage, primarily in the weight bearing joints

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Lyme disease

Arthritis caused by bacteria transmitted via tick bites

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Functions of muscle tissue

-Movement
-maintenance of posture
-joint stabilization
-heat generation

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Cleidocranial dystostosis/dysphasia (CCD)

Rare autosomal inherited disorder characterized by defective ossification, delayed bone and tooth development and stomatognathic and craniofacial abnormalities.

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Growth hormone

Produced by pituitary gland, stimulated epiphyseal plates

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Thyroid hormone

Ensures that the skeleton retain proper proportions

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Sex hormone

Promote bone growth,later induce closure of epiphyseal plates

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Osteoporosis

Low bone mass, bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposition (some women after menopause)

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Osteomalacia

Occurring adults, bones Are inadequately mineralized

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Rickets

In children, analogous to osteomalacia, weak and bowed leg. Malformation of head and ribs

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Pagets disease

Excessive rate of bone deposition but reduced mineralization leading to bone thickening .

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Achondroplasia

Congenital (genetic disease), defective cartilage growth and defective endochondral ossification leading to dwarfism

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Osteosarcoma

Bone cancer