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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (49):
1

What are four general characterisitics of bacteria?          JW

1. Single-cell prokaryotic organisms

2. They have a peptidoglycan cell wall.

3. They reproduce by binary fission.

4. They are nutritionally diverse.

1

What percentage of alcohol to water should be used in order to be effective and why?      MP

70% alcohol 30% water.

Water has to disturb the bacteria membrane in order to allow the alcohol to work as an effective disinfectant.           

                                   MP

2

What were Semmelweis and Lister ridiculed for?

 

             SR

They clamed that using disinfection and aseptic technique would dedused the spread of disease before microbes had been linked to disease.   

2


What is Recombinant DNA?

 

 

                                                                                                                               RA

It is DNA resulting from when genes of two different organisms are mixed.

 

                                                                                                                                RA

3

Proof that microbes cause disease is known as

The Germ Theory

3

What are the two new forms of vaccines?

Edible and DNA

3

Some bacteria are able to survive on the skin of humans. What types of bacteria are these and what are unharmful bacteria found on humans called?                       MP

 

Halophiles because they can stand salty conditions. Normal flora is good human bacteria.

 

MP

4

Roundworms are also referred as

 

nematodes

4

What is the most effective way to sterilize foods?                MP

Autoclave                                         MP

5

Who first observed "animalcules"?

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

6

What is Biotechnology?

 

 

VL

the use of living organisms to produce a useful product.

6

Who was the first person to link fermentation to microbes?

Louis Pasteur

7

Spontaneous generation

 

 

VL

Living organisms arise from non-living matter.

9

What five vital elements do microbes recycle?

Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorous, Oxygen

10

What are the three essential roles that microbes play?

 

                                    SR

1) Recycling of vital elements

2)Decompistion

3)Foundation of many food chains

10

WHAT ARE EXTREMEOPHILES?

THEY ARE ARCHAEA

GROW BEST UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS

EX: HIGH TEMPERATURES, HIGH SALT CONCENTRATIONS, HIGH Ph

                                                                                               MG

12

What are three factors that contribute to nosocomial infections?              JW

1. resistant microbes

2. compromised hosts

3. hospital transmission

12

What does Biogenesis refer to?

Living organisms that only arise from pre-existing living organisms.

14

Is normal flora an example of infection without disease or disease without infection?              JW

infection without disease

16

What was Robert Hooke's contribution to the development of microbiology?

 

 

 

VL

Observed that cork was composed of individual cells.

16

What is an example of Autoimmune disease?

Graves Disease, pretruding eyeballs

18

WHAT IS NORMAL FLORA?

OUR BODY'S NORMAL BACTERIA THAT LIVES ON  US AND IS NOT HARMFUL.

**MICROBES THAT GROW ON OR IN US THAT DOES NOT CAUSE ANY SYMPTOMS

 

** DEFINITION PER THE NOTES.                                                                 MG

19


What  is a pure culture?

 

 

                                                                                                                  RA

It is a population or microbe that contains a single strain or species of microbes, that is usually derived from a single organism.

 

                                                                                                          RA

20

The serendipitous discovery of penicillin can be attributed to who?             JW

Alexander Fleming

21

Who characterized and crystallized the virus structure?

 

        SR

Wendell Stanley

22

Why does penicillin effect gram positive bacteria but not gram negative?                             MP
 

Gram positives are made of peptidoglycan walls which penicillin can break down.                         MP
 

23

What is the treatment of disease using chemical subsances called?

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                          RA

Chemotherapy

 

 

 

                                                                                                                       RA

25

What is Etiology?

The study of the cause of a disease

 

26

WHAT ARE THE 3 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES?

1. ACELLULAR PARTICULES - NOT COMPOSED OF CELLS

2. INERT OUTSIDE A HOST CELL - NO METABOLIC ACTIVITY OUTSIDE THE HOST CELL

3. USURP A HOST CELL FOR REPLICATION - TAKING OVER A HOST CELL

                                                                                                      MG

27

What are the three general characterisitics of archaea?                    JW

1. They do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

2. They are extremeophiles

3. They do not cause human disease

29

Who was called the father of microbiology

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

30

Nematodes and Platyhelminths  are examples of ____

 

 

VL

Helminths

31

What are 5 ways humans manipulate microbes in order to benefit from them?

1. Sewage Treatment

2. Determination of water quality

3. Bioremediation

4. Medicine

5. Food Production

32

What are the three new emerging diseases?

1)Ebola

2)Hantavirus

3) Aven Influenza

34

What are Koch's postulates?

 

 

VL

Method used to identify the etiologic agent of a disease.

36

Who proved that microorganisms cause disease?

 

                                                           SR

Robert Koch

37

Name the four basic microbes

 

             SR

Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, Viruses

38

Who disproved Spontaneous generation and inturn proved Biogenesis

Louis Pasteur

39

HOW DO YOU NAME MICROBES?

THERE IS A GENUS NAME FOLLOWED BY A SPECIES NAME.

THEY ARE BOTH USUALLY DESCRIPTIVE.

GENUS NAME IS ALWAYS CAPITALIZED AND THE SPECIES IS NOT.

THEY ARE BOTH ALWAYS UNDERLINED OR ITALIC

 EX: Staphlococcus aureus                                               MG

40

Who was the first to discover vaccination.

Edward Jenner

41

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF A PHYSICAL TRAUMA?

A.) FLU

B.) BRONCHITIS

C.) SUNBURN

D.) ATHLETES FOOT

ANSWER: C. SUNBURN

                                                                                            MG

42

Who was the first to develop pure cultures?

Robert Koch

43

What are the basic characteristics of fungi?

1. Single-celled or multicellular eukaryotic organisms

2. Possess a cell wall composed of chitin

3. All are heterotrophs, do not use photosynthesis

44

What are the basic characteristics of protozoa?

1. Single-celled eukaryotic organisms

2. Do not possess a cell wall

3. Classified by their method of motility

45

Who discovered a "filteable agent"?

Dimitri Iwanowski

46

What is pasteurization?

A mild heating to reduce the number of disease or spoilage causing microbes in a liquid.

47

Who developed aseptic technique by trying to prevent childbed fever?

Ignaz Semmelweis

48

Who discovered the disinfection properties of phenol when preforming surgery?

Joseph Lister

49

What is the technique of adding DNA to a cell called?

Genetic engineering