What are four general characterisitics of bacteria? JW
1. Single-cell prokaryotic organisms
2. They have a peptidoglycan cell wall.
3. They reproduce by binary fission.
4. They are nutritionally diverse.
What percentage of alcohol to water should be used in order to be effective and why? MP
70% alcohol 30% water.
Water has to disturb the bacteria membrane in order to allow the alcohol to work as an effective disinfectant.
What were Semmelweis and Lister ridiculed for?
They clamed that using disinfection and aseptic technique would dedused the spread of disease before microbes had been linked to disease.
What is Recombinant DNA?
It is DNA resulting from when genes of two different organisms are mixed.
Proof that microbes cause disease is known as
The Germ Theory
What are the two new forms of vaccines?
Edible and DNA
Some bacteria are able to survive on the skin of humans. What types of bacteria are these and what are unharmful bacteria found on humans called? MP
Halophiles because they can stand salty conditions. Normal flora is good human bacteria.
Roundworms are also referred as
What is the most effective way to sterilize foods? MP
Who first observed "animalcules"?
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
What is Biotechnology?
the use of living organisms to produce a useful product.
Who was the first person to link fermentation to microbes?
Living organisms arise from non-living matter.
What five vital elements do microbes recycle?
Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorous, Oxygen
What are the three essential roles that microbes play?
1) Recycling of vital elements
3)Foundation of many food chains
WHAT ARE EXTREMEOPHILES?
THEY ARE ARCHAEA
GROW BEST UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS
EX: HIGH TEMPERATURES, HIGH SALT CONCENTRATIONS, HIGH Ph
What are three factors that contribute to nosocomial infections? JW
1. resistant microbes
2. compromised hosts
3. hospital transmission
What does Biogenesis refer to?
Living organisms that only arise from pre-existing living organisms.
Is normal flora an example of infection without disease or disease without infection? JW
infection without disease
What was Robert Hooke's contribution to the development of microbiology?
Observed that cork was composed of individual cells.
What is an example of Autoimmune disease?
Graves Disease, pretruding eyeballs
WHAT IS NORMAL FLORA?
OUR BODY'S NORMAL BACTERIA THAT LIVES ON US AND IS NOT HARMFUL.
**MICROBES THAT GROW ON OR IN US THAT DOES NOT CAUSE ANY SYMPTOMS
** DEFINITION PER THE NOTES. MG
What is a pure culture?
It is a population or microbe that contains a single strain or species of microbes, that is usually derived from a single organism.
The serendipitous discovery of penicillin can be attributed to who? JW
Who characterized and crystallized the virus structure?
Why does penicillin effect gram positive bacteria but not gram negative? MP
Gram positives are made of peptidoglycan walls which penicillin can break down. MP
What is the treatment of disease using chemical subsances called?
What is Etiology?
The study of the cause of a disease
WHAT ARE THE 3 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES?
1. ACELLULAR PARTICULES - NOT COMPOSED OF CELLS
2. INERT OUTSIDE A HOST CELL - NO METABOLIC ACTIVITY OUTSIDE THE HOST CELL
3. USURP A HOST CELL FOR REPLICATION - TAKING OVER A HOST CELL
What are the three general characterisitics of archaea? JW
1. They do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
2. They are extremeophiles
3. They do not cause human disease
Who was called the father of microbiology
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Nematodes and Platyhelminths are examples of ____
What are 5 ways humans manipulate microbes in order to benefit from them?
1. Sewage Treatment
2. Determination of water quality
5. Food Production
What are the three new emerging diseases?
3) Aven Influenza
What are Koch's postulates?
Method used to identify the etiologic agent of a disease.
Who proved that microorganisms cause disease?
Name the four basic microbes
Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, Viruses
Who disproved Spontaneous generation and inturn proved Biogenesis
HOW DO YOU NAME MICROBES?
THERE IS A GENUS NAME FOLLOWED BY A SPECIES NAME.
THEY ARE BOTH USUALLY DESCRIPTIVE.
GENUS NAME IS ALWAYS CAPITALIZED AND THE SPECIES IS NOT.
THEY ARE BOTH ALWAYS UNDERLINED OR ITALIC
EX: Staphlococcus aureus MG
Who was the first to discover vaccination.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF A PHYSICAL TRAUMA?
D.) ATHLETES FOOT
ANSWER: C. SUNBURN
Who was the first to develop pure cultures?
What are the basic characteristics of fungi?
1. Single-celled or multicellular eukaryotic organisms
2. Possess a cell wall composed of chitin
3. All are heterotrophs, do not use photosynthesis
What are the basic characteristics of protozoa?
1. Single-celled eukaryotic organisms
2. Do not possess a cell wall
3. Classified by their method of motility
Who discovered a "filteable agent"?
What is pasteurization?
A mild heating to reduce the number of disease or spoilage causing microbes in a liquid.
Who developed aseptic technique by trying to prevent childbed fever?
Who discovered the disinfection properties of phenol when preforming surgery?
What is the technique of adding DNA to a cell called?