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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (110):
1

the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment

fitness

2

scientists who proposed the Earth was millions of years old due to their geological findings

James Hutton and Charles Lyell

3

he proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms could acquire or lose certain traits which are then passed on to their children and future generations, eventually changing the species

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

4

he believed that war, famine, and disease limit the growth of populations

Thomas Malthus

5

structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues

homologous structure

6

organ organ that serves no useful function in organism

vestigial organ

7

When hard minerals fill an imprint of an organism, they eventually form a model of the organism called a

cast

8

The fossil record indicates that the first organisms to appear on Earth were

prokaryotes

9

A comparison of recently formed fossil types with types of living organisms shows that

new organisms arise in the areas where similar forms already live

10

If Lamarck's hypothesis of species modification were true, the children of a person who developed large muscles by lifting weights would be born with

larger-than-average muscles

11

The wing of a bat and the foreleg of an alligator are

homologous features

12

the corresponding changes of two or more species that are closely associated with each other, such as a plant and an animal that pollinates it, are called

coevolution

13

analogous features

look similar and have dissimilar embryological origins

14

Although they do not have recent common ancestors, birds and bats have similar body shapes necessary for powered flight. What pattern of evolution does this relationship represent?

convergent evolution

15

The pattern of evolution that is usually a response to different habitats is

divergent evolution

16

In order to be considered an evolutionary favorable trait for an organism, a trait must increase the individual's

fitness

17

A footprint, trail or burrow, providing evidence of animal activity

trace fossil

18

A fossil embedded in tree sap, valuable because the organism is preserved intact

amber-preserved

19

An exact stone copy of an original organism, the hard parts of which have been penetrated and replaced by minerals

petrified fossil

20

Any evidence of an organism that lived long ago

fossil

21

The fossil of a thin object, such as a leaf or feather, that falls into sediments and leaves an outline when the sediments harden

imprint

22

An empty space left in a rock, showing the exact shape of the organism that was buried and decayed there

mold

23

An object formed when a mold is filled by minerals from the surrounding rock

cast

24

If layers of rocks are left undisturbed the layers on top are younger because they formed after the layers on the bottom

relative dating

25

how relative dating works

if undisturbed, layers closer to surface will be young; deeper=older

26

What is the limitation of relative dating

one fossil is older than another

27

How do paleontologist determine the specific age of a fossil

radiometric dating

28

How do scientist use radiometric dating to determine the age of rocks or fossils

Compare amount of original radioactive element to amount of new element formed from decay

29

The first photosynthetic bacteria form dome-shaped structures called stromatolites

Pre-Cambrian

30

Primates evolve and diversify

Cenozoic

31

Divided into three periods: Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous

Mesozoic

32

An explosion of life, characterized by the appearance of many types of invertebrates and plant phyla

Paleozoic

33

Mammals appear

Mesozoic

34

Dinosaurs roam earth, and the ancestors of modern birds evolve

Mesozoic

35

Flowering plants appear

Mesozoic

36

Amphibians and reptiles appear

Paleozoic

37

when minerals in rocks fill a space left by a decayed organism, which of the following types of fossils is formed

cast fossil

38

what is the process of determining a fossil's age using chemical half-lives called

radiometric dating

39

what is the earliest geologic-era called

Precambrian

40

Which go the following eras is divided into the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods

Mesozoic

41

Who conducted experiments to disprove the spontaneous generation of large organisms, such as maggots?

Francesco Redi

42

first forms of life were most likely

prokaryotic

43

what provides the explantation for the presence of mitochondria in cells

endosymbiosis

44

which event contributed most directly to the evolution of aerobic organisms

the presence of organisms able to carry on photosynthesis

45

believed in Spontaneous Generation (mice from sweaty shirts)

Needham

46

used cause over decaying meat to show that flies come only from other flies

Francesco Redi

47

used s-shaped flasks along a dusty road to finally disprove myth of abiogenesis

Louis Pasteur

48

Darwin's grandfather who started Wedgewood China in England and helped Darwin get permission to sail in the H.M.S beagle 12/27/1731

Josiah Wedgewood

49

credited with advancing the global environmental movement

Rachel Carson

50

have the same origin, different function

homologous structure

51

whale's find, man's arm

examples of homologous structure

52

differ in origin, function is similar due to similar environment

analogous structure

53

butterfly's wings, bird's wings

examples of analogous structure

54

shortest gestation period for all mammals is

opossum- 13 days

55

kangaroo's galatin

21 days

56

seechi disk

needed to know how much plant life there was to figure out the amount of fish living in that area

57

Frogs can breathe three ways

1. lungs 2. mucus lining of their mouths 3. skin

58

twinning in cattle is very common

twinning in horses is rare

59

twinning in cattle

if male/female, the female will be sterile (freemartin) because male hormones are stronger=affected reproductive systems

60

which states has the most wolf population in the US

Alaska and Minnesota

61

nonnatural forms of fat produced through a manufacturing process called hydrogenation

trans fat (adds texture, inexpensive to prepare;avoid=read labels)

62

usually cause diseases or are involved in Nitrogen fixation

bacteria

63

atmosphere

78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Misc

64

these can survive very harsh climates

archaea

65

gives off methane gas and can survive in this

methanogens

66

can survive in very salty conditions

halophiles

67

these can serve in extremely hot conditions like geysers

thermoacidophiles

68

includes remaining life forms with an organize nucleus

eukarya

69

unicellular, includes algae which produces most food

protist (only multicellular protist is kelp)

70

multicellular, heterotrophs, except yeast (multicellular), cell walls of chitiu

fungi

71

multicellular autotrophs with cell walls of cellulose

plantae

72

multicellular heterotrophs lacking cell walls

anamaia

73

order of dragon flies

odonata

74

three domains

plantae, archaea, eukarya

75

eukarya

plantae, fungi, animalia

76

convergent evolution

process where organisms not closely related independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches

77

example of convergent evolution

flight has evolved in both bats and insects, they both had wings which are adaptation to flight

78

divergent evolution

accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species

79

example of divergent evolution

over 80 varieties which all diverged from one original species of finch

80

some organelles have their own DNA and were once organisms alone; they began to live mutually with another organism and lost their separate identity

Endosymbiont Theory

81

examples of organelles for Endosymbiont Theory

mitochondria and chloroplast

82

occurs in reproductive cells and may be transmitted to offspring

germ mutation

83

occurs in body cells and is NOT transmitted to future offspring

sematic mutation

84

kaibab squirrel

differs from the grey squirrel because they were isolated

85

Alexander Fleming

first antibiotic, Penicillin

86

killed all the trees in TN, some trees didn't get the fungus=had natural resistence

Dutch Elm Disease

87

the geographic distribution of species that first suggested to Darwin that today's organisms evolved from ancestral forms

biogeography

88

animal whose body plan has change the least for the longest period of time

horseshoe crab

89

process by which organic material is converted into a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals

petrified fossil

90

the hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change.

punctuated equilibrium

91

the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes

homeostasis

92

the erratic random movement of microscopic particles in a fluid, as a result of continuous bombardment from molecules of the surrounding medium

Brownian Motion

93

many sets of chromosomes

polyploidy

94

a pesticide developed in the south that was widely used to eliminate the Boll Weevil that was destroying cotton crops

DDT

95

when water freezes

it expands by 8-9%

96

this marks the distinct area in water

thermochine (where light no longer penetrates)

97

water's freezing temperature

fresh water- 32 F seawater- 28.4 F

98

Properties of Life

order, sensitivity or response to the environment, reproduction, growth and development, regulation, homeostasis, and energy processing

99

change in a gene pool of a small population due to chance

genetic drift

100

where a population may gain or lose alleles when fertile individuals move into or out of the population or when gamete are transferred between populations

gene flow

101

the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population

gene pool

102

the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity

capillary action

103

green algae, likely 1st organism to evolve

cynobacteria

104

Water is attracted to other substances

adhesion

105

water is attracted to water

cohesion

106

mule

horse- 64 donkey- 62 mule- 63

107

speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become vicariant, or isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange

allopatric speciation

108

the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors

founder effect

109

fusion of last 5 vertebrates

coccyx

110

moving out to other environments

adaptive radiation