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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (21):
1

Criminal justice system

the stages through which the offender passes, including police, courts, and corrections

2

Intimate violence

crime that occurs in the context of familiarity, such as spousal abuse, child abuse, or elder abuse

3

Criminology

the scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behaviour

4

Criminologist

one who brings objectively and method to the study of crime and its consequences

5

Deviant behaviour

behaviour that departs from or doesn’t conform to social norms, but isn’t defined as a crime by the law

6

Decriminalization

reducing the penalty for a criminal act, and its illegality

7

Utilitarianism

a view that punishment should be balanced and fair, and that crime is a rational choice

8

Classical criminology

the perspective that people freely choose crime, and that it can be reduced through the threat of criminal sanctions

9

Positivism

a branch of social science that sees behaviour as a product of social, biological, psychological, and economic forces

10

Criminal anthropology

early efforts to discover a biological basis to crime through physical measurements, usually associated with Cesare Lombroso

11

Atavistic anomalies (or traits)

the physical characteristics of “born criminals” that indicate they are throwbacks to primitive people

12

Anomie

rapidly shifting moral values produce normlessness, where the individual has little guide to what is socially acceptable, usually associated with Robert Merton

13

Chicago School

Early 20th century sociological research on the social ecology of the city and the city of urban crime

14

Bourgeoisie

in Marxist theory, the owners of the means of production; the capitalist ruling class

15

Proletariat

in the Marxist theory, the working glass, who provide the labour in capitalism

16

Criminological enterprise

the totality of criminology, which includes many fields, or subareas, of study

17

White-collar crime

crimes committed by those with power, such as embezzlement, false advertising, or stock market manipulation

18

Moral entrepreneurs

interest groups or individuals who are in a position to promote their own values onto others

19

Cross-sectional research

surveys that use data from all age, race, gender, and income segments of the population

20

Longitudinal research

research that tracks that development of a group of subjects over time

21

Cohort

a sample of subjects whose behaviour is followed over a period