Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (36):
What is nutrition?
the nutrients in foods, how nutrients are used in the body and how human behaviours relate to the food we eat
What is diet?
the foods and beverages a person usually eats and drinks
What is food?
any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and healthy (carrier of nutrients)
What is health?
the state of a human when it functions optimally without evidence of disease or abnormality
What 2 things play an important role in nutrition and disease prevention?
Genetics and diet
What is anemia?
Reduced capacity to carry nutrients
What is nutritional genomics?
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activity of nutrients
What are nutrients?
components in food that are essential to the functioning of our body
What 3 things do nutrients provide for our body?
2. Building materials
3. Help maintain and repair the body and support growth
What is the difference between a Calorie (C) and a calorie (c)?
Calorie (C): the amount of energy needed to raise the temp of one litre of water one degree
calorie (c): " " of one ml of water
What are considered the energy providing nutrients? What are the other nutrients?
Energy: carbs, fat and protein
Other: water, vitamins and minerals
What is an essential nutrient?
the nutrients that the body cannot make for itself from other raw materials
What is a conditionally essential nutrient? Give an example.
the body cannot make enough to meet the requirements for health
Ex. cholesterol- needed for hormones and cell walls
What are the 8 essential amino acids? (*hint: TV TILL PM)
What are the two essential fatty acids?
What are the essential vitamins?
3 fat soluble (A,D and E)
1 conditional (K)
All the water soluble vitamins
What are the essential minerals?
All minerals are essential
What is food energy measured in?
how many Calories/g in: carbs, protein, fat and alcohol
Carbs: 4 Calories/g
Protein: 4 Calories/g
Fat: 9 Calories/g
Alcohol: 7 Calories/g
** Calculate calories from fat
What are the 5 characteristics of a nutritious diet?
1. Adequate- in essential nutrients, fibre and NRG
2. Balance- food choices do not over emphasize one nutrient or food type at the expense of another
3. Calorie Control: provides amount of NRG needed to maintain healthy weight
4. Moderation: in fats, salt, sugar and other unwanted
5. Variety: choose different foods each day
What is a basic food?
milk and milk products, meats and similar foods such as fish and poultry, veggies such as dried beans and peas, fruits and grains. These foods forms the ‘basis’ of a nutritious diet. Whole foods.
What are Enriched and Fortified foods
Foods to which nutrients have been added.
ex. white bread: iron, niacin, thiamine and riboflavin need to be added to white bread for it to be allowed to be sold
What are Fast Foods
restaurant food that are available within minutes after customers order them. These foods may or may not meet people’s nutrient needs.
What are Functional Foods
group of foods known to possess nutrients or non nutrients that might lend protection against diseases. * however, all nutritious foods can support health in some ways…
What are natural foods?
no legal definition but often used to imply wholesomeness
What are nutraceutical products?
a product that has been isolated from food, often in pull form and is believed to have medicinal effects
What are organic foods?
foods grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers
What are partitioned foods?
foods composed of parts of whole foods. Ex. butter from milk, sugar from beets or cane. Often overused and provide few nutrients with many calories
What are processed foods?
foods subjected to any process, such as milling, alteration of texture, addition of additives, cooking or other
What are staple foods?
foods used frequently or daily
What are some reasons why we choose the food we do?
Availability, cost, convince, emotional, social and cultural factors, media advertising, habit, positive feedback or weight and nutritional value
What would a epidemiological study being focusing on?
Who would a case study be focusing on?
What are intervention studies?
Studies where researchers actively intervene with the population