Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (24):
How many cells are in the human body?
4 types of biomolecules
Proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates
-constructed from 20 amino acid building blocks, linked by peptide bonds to form long unbranched polymers that fold into precise 3D structures
-also serve as signal molecules and receptors, structural roles, allow mobility, defend against environmental dangers, and act as catalysts called enzymes
-information keepers of the cell, store and transfer information. Constructed of 4 building blocks called nucleotides.
-2 types of nucleic acid:DNA and RNA
-DNA:stores genetic information, made adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, linked by phosphodiester linkages in a double helix, A-T and C-G
-RNA: single strand nucleic acid, some regions of DNA are copied into special RNA called mRNA, a template for protein synthesis. In RNA Thymine is replaced with Uracil, and the sugar component of the ribonucleotides has an addition OH group
-much smaller than proteins and nucleic acids, part is hydrophilic(the head) and part is hydrophobic(hydrocarbon chains). This allows cells to form barriers to the environment and establish intercellular components. Also act as fuel and signal molecules
important fuel source, glucose, stored as glycogen in animals, also act as signal molecules to help cell recognize each other
Central dogma of biological information transfer:
-DNA is replicated, transcribed to RNA, RNA is translated to proteins.
-DNA polymerase catalyzes the replication process.
-Selective expression of DNA defines the function of a cell or tissue
-translation of RNA renders the genetic info into a functional form, takes place on ribosomes consisting of RNA and protein
2 biochemical features of all cells:
-Must be a barrier that separates the cell from its environment
-inside is chemically different from the environment and accommodates the biochemistry of living
has membrane enclosed organelles
Has no organelles
lipid bilayer, 2 layers of lipids with their hydrophobic chains by each other and the hydrophilic head by the environment
Plant cell wall
surrounds plant cell membrane, constructed of polymer of glucose molecules, protects plant cells
inner substance of the cell, highly organized network of structural filaments called cytoskeleton. In eukaryotes, it's made of actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
double membrane bounded, info center of the cell, store organism’s genome. Where genetic info is selectively expressed at the proper time and amount
has 2 membranes, fuel molecules undergo combustion into co2 and h2o and generate ATP. 90% of energy used by a cell is produced here
double membrane bound, only found in plants, power the plant cell, conducts photosynthesis.
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side that synthesize proteins to be inserted into cell membranes or secreted from the cell. Proteins from RER go to the lumen of the Er during translation, where it folds into its final structure
Smooth endoplamic reticulum
processes outside chemicals such as drugs
transport vesicles from RER go to here and fuse. Processes proteins further, adds carbs and sorts proteins
formed when a vesicle filled with proteins leaves golgi. Goes to membrane and fuses with it to dump cargo into environment
a membrane-bound compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane.
large amounts of material taken into the cell
organelle with digestive enzymes, fuse with endosomes, digest material, release small molecules that can be used as building blocks or fuel by the cell