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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (43):
1

Everything we do that can be directly observed. Ex. Two people kissing, a baby crying, a college student riding a motorcycle to campus

Behavior

2

The thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly

Mental processes

3

The process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence

Critical thinking

4

A broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations

Theory

5

A testable prediction that derives logically from a theory

Hypothesis

6

Provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study

Operational definition

7

Involves finding out about the basic dimensions at some variable (ex. What is the average level of happiness of men in the United States?)

Descriptive research

8

An in-depth look at a single individual

Case study (case history)

9

Tells us about the relationships between variables, and it's purpose is to examine whether and how to variables change together

Correlational research (correlations method)

10

Two types of correlation research

Positive and negative

11

Positive correlation means that as one variable increases, __

The other also increases

12

Negative correlation means that has one variable increases, __

The other decreases

13

The degree of relationship between two variables is expressed as a numerical value, represented by the letter __

Correlation coefficient
r

14

The correlation coefficient tells us two things about the relationship between two variables: its __ and __. It always falls between -1.00 and +1.00. The closer the number is to -1.00/1.00, the __. The plus indicates __ while the negative indicates __. The number represents the __ and the sign represents the __

Strength and direction
Stronger the relationship
Positive correlation
Negative correlation
Strength
Direction

15

This occurs when some other variable that has not been measured accounts for the relationship between two others

Third variable problem

16

Third variables are also known as __

Confounds

17

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Psychology

18

A special kind of systematic observation, used by correlational researchers, that involves obtaining measures of the same variables in multiple waves overtime

Longitudinal design

19

__ can suggest potential causal relationships because if one variable is thought to cause changes in another, it should at least come before that variable in time

Longitudinal research

20

A carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable

Experimental method (or experiment)

21

Researchers assignment of participants to groups by chance, to reduce the likelihood that an experiment's results will be due to pre-existing differences between groups

Random assignment

22

A manipulated experimental factor, the variable that the experimenter changes to see what it's effects are

Independent variable

23

The outcome- the factor that can change in the experiment in response to changes in the independent variable

Dependent variable

24

The participants in an experiment who receive the drug or other treatment under study – that is, those who are exposed to the change that the independent variable represents

Experimental group

25

The participants in an experiment who are as much like the experimental group as possible and who are treated in every way like the experimental group, except for a manipulated factor, The independent variable

Control group

26

Refers to the soundness of the conclusions that a researcher draws from an experiment

Validity

27

The degree to which an experimental design actually reflects the real world issues it is supposed to address

External validity

28

The degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent bearable

Internal validity

29

The influence of the experimenters expectations on the outcome of research

Experimenter bias

30

In an experiment, the influence of the participant's expectations, and of their thoughts about how they should behave , on their behavior

Research participant bias

31

The situation where participant expectations, rather than the experimental treatment, produce an experimental outcome

Placebo effect

32

One example of the power of participant expectations is the __

Placebo effect

33

An experimental design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated

Double-blind experiment

34

Two ways to ensure that expectations won't get in the way of the outcome

Double-blind experiment and placebo pill (a pill to use on control group, not an actual painkiller)

35

The entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions

Population

36

The subset of the population chosen by the investigator for study

Sample

37

A sample that gives every member of the population an equal chance of being selected

Random sample

38

This evaluates the ethical nature of research conducted at their institutions

Institutional review board (IRB)

39

The American psychological Association has developed ethical guidelines for its members that include __, __, and __

Informed consent, confidentiality, debriefing, deception

40

All participants must know what their participation will involve and what risks it might develop

Informed consent

41

Researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individual is completely confidential and when possible completely anonymous

Confidentiality

42

After the study has been completed, the researchers should inform the participants of its purpose and the methods they used

Debriefing

43

The psychologists makes sure __ Will not harm the participants and that the participants will be told the true nature of the study as soon as possible after the study is completed

Deception