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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (69):
1

The study of matter, its properties and the changes that matter undergoes

Chemistry

2

The physical material of the universe; anything that has mass and occupies space

Matter

3

Any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and distinguish it from other types

Property

4

Small building blocks of matter

Atoms

5

Two or more atoms joined in specific shapes

Molecules

6

How is matter classified

1) physical state
2) composition

7

What are the states of matter

Gas, liquid, solid

8

Matter that has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample

Pure substance

9

Substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances

Elements

10

Substances composed of two or more elements( contain two or more kinds of atoms)

Compounds

11

Combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its chemical identity

Mixture

12

How many elements are known

118

13

The elemental composition of a compound is always the same; stated by Joseph Proust

Law of constant composition

14

Homogeneous mixtures

Solutions

15

Can be observed without changing the identity and composition of the substance

Physical properties

16

Describe the way a substance may change or react to form other substances

Chemical properties

17

Do not depend on the amount of sample being examined and are useful to identify substances

Intensive properties

18

Depend on the amount of sample ex/ mass and volume

Extensive properties

19

Substance changes it's physics appearance but not is composition

Physical change

20

Substance is transformed into a chemically different substance

Chemical change

21

Separation process that depends on the different abilities of substances to form gases

Distillation

22

The capacity to do work or transfer heat

Energy

23

The energy transferred when a force exerted in an object causes a displacement of that object

Work

24

Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase

Heat

25

Definition of work

w= F x d

26

Any push or pull exerted on the object

Force

27

The energy of motion

Kinetic energy

28

Formula for kinetic energy

Ek = 1/2 mv ^2

29

The kinetic energy of an object ____________ as its velocity or speed increases

Increases

30

Stored energy that arises from the attractions and repulsions an object experiences in relation to other objects

Potential energy

31

Arises from the interactions between charged particles

Electrostatic potential energy

32

Chemical energy is __________ when bonds between atoms are formed

Released

33

Chemical energy is _____________ when bonds between atoms are broken

Consumed

34

Unit and abbreviation for length

Meter; m

35

Unit and abbreviation for mass

Kilogram; kg

36

Unit and abbreviation for temperature

Kelvin, K

37

Unit and abbreviation for amount of substance

Mole; mol

38

Unit and abbreviation for electric current

Ampere; amp

39

Unit and abbreviation for luminous intensity

Candela; cd

40

Prefix and meaning for P

Peta; 10^15

41

Prefix and meaning for T

Tera; 10^12

42

Prefix and meaning for G

Giga; 10^9

43

Prefix and meaning for M

Mega; 10^6

44

Prefix and meaning for k

Kilo; 10^3

45

Prefix and meaning for d

Deci; 10^-1

46

Prefix and meaning for c

Centi ; 10^-2

47

Prefix and meaning for m

Milli; 10^-3

48

Prefix and meaning for ub

Micro; 10^-6

49

Prefix and meaning for n

Nano; 10^-9

50

Prefix and meaning for p

Pico; 10^-12

51

Prefix and meaning for f

Femto; 10^-15

52

Prefix and meaning for a

Atto; 10^-18

53

Prefix and meaning for z

Zepto; 10^-21

54

On the Celsius scale, absolute zero has the value _________

-273.15 C

55

Kelvin formula for Celsius

K = C + 273.15

56

Celsius to F conversion

F = 9/5 (C) +32

57

F to C conversion

C = 5/9 (F-32)

58

Volume formula

L^3

59

The amount of mass in a unit volume of a substance

Density

60

Density formula

Density = mass / volume

61

Unit for energy

Joule

62

Unit of energy- amount of energy needed to raise temperature

Calorie

63

1 cal = ___________ J

4.184

64

Uncertainties always exist in ___________ quantities

Measured

65

Measure if how closely individual measurements agree with one another

Precision

66

Refers to how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value

Accuracy

67

For addition and subtraction

Fewest decimal places

68

For multiplication and division

Fewest significant figures

69

Method of problem solving in which units are multiplied together or divided into eachother along with numerical values

Dimensional analysis