Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (78):
What are Microorganisms?
Organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye
bacteria on human nasal epithelial cells
Which strain of Staphylococcus is Methicillin-resistant?
S. Aureus (MRSA)
Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, microscopic algae, and viruses are included in the general category________
Microorganism or Microbe
Pathogenic Microbes produce____
Benefits of Microbes:
1)Decompose Organic Waste
2)Produce oxygen via photosynthesis
3)Produce products such as ethanol, acetone, and vitamins
4)Produce fermented foods
5)Produce products used in manufacturing and medical treatment
Studying Microorganism helps us
1)Prevent food spoilage
3)Understand causes and transmission of disease to prevent epidemics
Who devised the system of scientific nomenclature in 1735 that classifies organisms by genus and specific epithet?
Full scientific names are...
Italicized or underlined
The genus is...
The specific epithet is...
Who is Escherichia Coli named after?
And where can it be located?
The large intestine or colon
What does the name Staphylococcus aureus tell us about the shape, arrangement, and color of the cells?
Are Bacteria eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
Are Bacteria single or multi-celled?
What are Bacterial cell walls made of?
How do Bacterial cells reproduce?
What do Bacterial cells derive nutrition from?
organic or inorganic chemicals and/or photosynthesis
Are Archaea eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
Are Archaea single or multi-celled? single or multi-celled?
What are Archaea cell walls specifically not made of?
Which of these is not an Archaea found in an extreme environment?
c) Extreme halophiles
d) Extreme thermophiles
Are Fungi eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
What are Fungal cell walls made of?
How do Fungi derive nutrition?
They absorb organic chemicals for energy
Are Yeasts single or multi-celled?
Are Molds and Mushrooms single or multi-celled?
What are Hyphae?
filaments which make up mycelia in mold
Are Protozoans eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
How do Protozoans derive nutrition?
By absorbing or ingesting organic chemicals
[Free-living or parasitic derive nutrients from a living host]
How are some Protozoans mobile?
Using pseudopods (cilia or flagella
Are Algae eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
What are Algae cell walls made of?
oxygen and carbohydrates
Where are Algae found?
Freshwater; Saltwater; Soil
What is the energy source for Algae?
The sun (photosynthesis)
Viruses are only active (and can only replicate) in...
a living host cell
Viruses consist of...
a DNA or RNA core
the core is surrounded by a protein coat
the coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope
Are Multicellular Animal Parasites uni or multi-cellular?
Are Multicellular Animal Parasites eukaryotic or prokaryotic?
Parasitic Flatworms and Roundworms are known as?
Who developed this microorganic classification system:
Three domains based on cellular organization
Who began "cell theory" and reported that "living things are composed of little boxes or "cells""?
Robert Hooke (1665)
Who was the first to observe microbes through his magnifying lens?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1623–1673)
What is the theory of "Spontaneous generation?"
The hypothesis that life arises from nonliving matter; a "vital force" is necessary for life.
What is the theory of "Biogenesis?"
The hypothesis that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells.
In 1861 who proved that microbes were present in the air, thus disproving the theory of "Spontaneous generation"?
Pasteur also proved that microbes are responsible for...
Fermentation and food spoilage
What is Pasteurization?
The application of a high heat for a short time to kill harmful bacteria in beverages.
In the 1840s who suggested handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one obstetrical patient to another?
This man's work was a proof to the Germ Theory of Disease and involved used a chemical antiseptic (phenol) to prevent surgical wound infections
Dr. Joseph Lister
Who devised Koch's Postulates to demonstrate that a specific microbe causes a specific disease?
Who pioneered immunity via vaccination or immunization?
Vaccines were first used to cause immunity to ...
What is chemotherapy?
Treatment of disease with chemicals (and includes synthetic drugs and antibiotics)
Who speculated about a "magic bullet" that could destroy a pathogen without harming the host and later developed a synthetic arsenic drug, salvarsan, to treat syphilis?
In 1928, Paul Fleming discovered the first...
Antibiotic (it was an accident) -
What is Mycology?
The study of Fungi
Parasitology is the study of parasitic worms and ...
Who classified streptococci based on their cell wall structure?
What type of microscope has made it possible to study viruses in detail?
The Electron Microscope
What is recombinant DNA?
DNA made from two different sources
In 1941 who showed that genes encode a cell's enzymes?
Beadle and Tatum
In 1944 who showed that DNA is the hereditary material?
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty
In 1953 these two proposed a model of DNA structure...
Watson and Crick
In 1961 they discovered the role of mRNA in protein synthesis...
Jacob and Monod
Give two examples of Bioremediation (the use of microbes to clean the environment)
Bacteria degrade organic matter in sewage
Bacteria degrade or detoxify pollutants such as oil and mercury
What term has replaced "flora"?
What do "Normal Microbiota" do?
prevent growth of pathogens; produce growth factors such as vitamins B and K
Skin, stomach acid, and antimicrobial chemicals are all _____ factors
What can microbes mass into, likely causing antibacterial immunity?
What are Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)?
New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence
What causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)?
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
This strain of Staphylococcus is immune to penicillin and methicillin
What insect transmits West Nile encephalitis (WNE) an extension of West Nile Virus?
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Bovine spongiform encephalopathy are both _____ diseases
E. coli O157:H7 is the leading cause of ________ worldwide