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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (78):
1

What are Microorganisms?

Organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye

2

Staphylococcus Aureus

bacteria on human nasal epithelial cells

3

Which strain of Staphylococcus is Methicillin-resistant?

S. Aureus (MRSA)

4

Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, microscopic algae, and viruses are included in the general category________

Microorganism or Microbe

5

Pathogenic Microbes produce____

Disease

6

Benefits of Microbes:

1)Decompose Organic Waste
2)Produce oxygen via photosynthesis
3)Produce products such as ethanol, acetone, and vitamins
4)Produce fermented foods
5)Produce products used in manufacturing and medical treatment

7

Studying Microorganism helps us

1)Prevent food spoilage
2)Prevent disease
3)Understand causes and transmission of disease to prevent epidemics

8

Who devised the system of scientific nomenclature in 1735 that classifies organisms by genus and specific epithet?

Carolus Linnaeus

9

Full scientific names are...

Italicized or underlined

10

The genus is...

Capitalized

11

The specific epithet is...

lowercase

12

Who is Escherichia Coli named after?
And where can it be located?

Theodor Escherich
The large intestine or colon

13

What does the name Staphylococcus aureus tell us about the shape, arrangement, and color of the cells?

clustered (staphylo-)
spherical (coccus)
gold-colored (aureus)

14

Are Bacteria eukaryotic or prokaryotic?

Prokaryotic

15

Are Bacteria single or multi-celled?

Single (unicellular)

16

What are Bacterial cell walls made of?

Peptidoglycan

17

How do Bacterial cells reproduce?

Binary Fission

18

What do Bacterial cells derive nutrition from?

organic or inorganic chemicals and/or photosynthesis

19

Are Archaea eukaryotic or prokaryotic?

Prokaryotic

20

Are Archaea single or multi-celled? single or multi-celled?

Single (unicellular)

21

What are Archaea cell walls specifically not made of?

Peptidoglycan

22

Which of these is not an Archaea found in an extreme environment?
a) Methanogens
b) Pathogens
c) Extreme halophiles
d) Extreme thermophiles

b) Pathogens

23

Are Fungi eukaryotic or prokaryotic?

Eukaryotic

24

What are Fungal cell walls made of?

Chitin

25

How do Fungi derive nutrition?

They absorb organic chemicals for energy

26

Are Yeasts single or multi-celled?

Single (unicellular)

27

Are Molds and Mushrooms single or multi-celled?

Multi-Cellular

28

What are Hyphae?

filaments which make up mycelia in mold

29

Are Protozoans eukaryotic or prokaryotic?

Eukaryotic

30

How do Protozoans derive nutrition?

By absorbing or ingesting organic chemicals
[Free-living or parasitic derive nutrients from a living host]

31

How are some Protozoans mobile?

Using pseudopods (cilia or flagella

32

Are Algae eukaryotic or prokaryotic?

Eukaryotic

33

What are Algae cell walls made of?

Cellulose

34

Algae produce...

oxygen and carbohydrates

35

Where are Algae found?

Freshwater; Saltwater; Soil

36

What is the energy source for Algae?

The sun (photosynthesis)

37

Viruses are only active (and can only replicate) in...

a living host cell

38

Viruses consist of...

a DNA or RNA core
the core is surrounded by a protein coat
the coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope

39

Are Multicellular Animal Parasites uni or multi-cellular?

Multicellular (duh!)

40

Are Multicellular Animal Parasites eukaryotic or prokaryotic?

Eukaryotic

41

Parasitic Flatworms and Roundworms are known as?

Helminths

42

Who developed this microorganic classification system:
Three domains based on cellular organization
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Protists
Fungi
Plants
Animals
?

Carl Woese

43

Who began "cell theory" and reported that "living things are composed of little boxes or "cells""?

Robert Hooke (1665)

44

Who was the first to observe microbes through his magnifying lens?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1623–1673)

45

What is the theory of "Spontaneous generation?"

The hypothesis that life arises from nonliving matter; a "vital force" is necessary for life.

46

What is the theory of "Biogenesis?"

The hypothesis that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells.

47

In 1861 who proved that microbes were present in the air, thus disproving the theory of "Spontaneous generation"?

Louis Pasteur

48

Pasteur also proved that microbes are responsible for...

Fermentation and food spoilage

49

What is Pasteurization?

The application of a high heat for a short time to kill harmful bacteria in beverages.

50

In the 1840s who suggested handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one obstetrical patient to another?

Ignaz Semmelweis

51

This man's work was a proof to the Germ Theory of Disease and involved used a chemical antiseptic (phenol) to prevent surgical wound infections

Dr. Joseph Lister

52

Who devised Koch's Postulates to demonstrate that a specific microbe causes a specific disease?

Robert Koch

53

Who pioneered immunity via vaccination or immunization?

Edward Jenner

54

Vaccines were first used to cause immunity to ...

Cowpox

55

What is chemotherapy?

Treatment of disease with chemicals (and includes synthetic drugs and antibiotics)

56

Who speculated about a "magic bullet" that could destroy a pathogen without harming the host and later developed a synthetic arsenic drug, salvarsan, to treat syphilis?

Paul Ehrlich

57

In 1928, Paul Fleming discovered the first...

Antibiotic (it was an accident) -
Pennicilin

58

What is Mycology?

The study of Fungi

59

Parasitology is the study of parasitic worms and ...

Protozoa

60

Who classified streptococci based on their cell wall structure?

Rebecca Lancefield

61

What type of microscope has made it possible to study viruses in detail?

The Electron Microscope

62

What is recombinant DNA?

DNA made from two different sources

63

In 1941 who showed that genes encode a cell's enzymes?

Beadle and Tatum

64

In 1944 who showed that DNA is the hereditary material?

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty

65

In 1953 these two proposed a model of DNA structure...

Watson and Crick

66

In 1961 they discovered the role of mRNA in protein synthesis...

Jacob and Monod

67

Give two examples of Bioremediation (the use of microbes to clean the environment)

Bacteria degrade organic matter in sewage
Bacteria degrade or detoxify pollutants such as oil and mercury

68

What term has replaced "flora"?

"Microbiota"

69

What do "Normal Microbiota" do?

prevent growth of pathogens; produce growth factors such as vitamins B and K

70

Skin, stomach acid, and antimicrobial chemicals are all _____ factors

Resistance

71

What can microbes mass into, likely causing antibacterial immunity?

Biofilms

72

What are Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)?

New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence

73

What causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)?

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

74

This strain of Staphylococcus is immune to penicillin and methicillin

Staphylococcus Aureus
(S. Aureus)

75

What insect transmits West Nile encephalitis (WNE) an extension of West Nile Virus?

Mosquitoes

76

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Bovine spongiform encephalopathy are both _____ diseases

Prion

77

E. coli O157:H7 is the leading cause of ________ worldwide

Diarrhea

78

What is AIDS and how is it transmitted?

Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome
Caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Transmitted sexually