Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (120):
The study of the structure of the human body
The science of form
The study of body function
Define Functional Anatomy
How the structure is designed to meet the functional needs of the body
Name 3 main sub disciplines of anatomy
Gross, Surface, Microscopic
Define Gross Anatomy
What you can see with the naked eye
Define regional anatomy
Subtopic of gross; one region of the body and you look at all systems of that area
Define Systemic anatomy
Subtopic of gross; identify each system individually
Define Surface Anatomy
Allows you to locate where internal structures are
Define Microscopic Anatomy
Uses microscopes to see tissues and cells, helpful because most disease occurs at this level
Define Developmental Anatomy
All changes in the body from birth to death
How organs for and change over time before birth
Define pathological anatomy
Changes that occur structurally during the process of disease
Define radiographic anatomy
Study internal structures via use of imaging techniques
Define Functional morphology
How well do the structures work and how does disease change their efficiency and ability to do the job they are supposed to do
Describe the purpose of anatomical terminology
Provides a standard nomenclature worldwide
Describe the hierarchy of structural organization
Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level
Describe the integumentary system
Skin, hair, nails; forms external body covering, protects internal organs from injury from the environment, helps to regulate body temperature, synthesizes vitamin D, site of cutaneous receptors
Describe the Skeletal System
Internal, protects and supports organs, provides a frameworks for muscles, blood cells are formed within the bones, store minerals
Describe the muscular system
Composed of skeletal muscle, allows manipulation of environment, provides expressions, locomotion, maintains posture, produces heat
Describe the nervous system
Regulatory system that is fast acting and responds to internal and external changes. Has short lived responses using neurotransmitters
Describe the endocrine system
Regulatory system with glands that secrete regulating hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use. Has a longer lived response and slower in response time
Describe the cardiovascular system
Blood vessels transport blood carrying oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes.
What are the 3 components of the cardiovascular system?
Heart, blood, interconnected vessels
Describe the lymphatic system
Helps with immunity, picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris in the system, houses white blood cells, attacks foreign substances in the body
What is the function of lymph nodes?
They filter fluids
Describe the respiratory system
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, gas exchanges occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs
Describe the digestive system
Takes in nutrients, breaks down food into absorbable units, indigestible food is eliminated as feces
Describe the urinary system
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes, regulates water, electrolyte, and acid base balance, eliminates breakdown products in urine
Describe the reproductive systems
Function is to produce offspring, testes, ovaries, mammary glands
Describe the axial region
Axis of the body; head, neck, trunk
Describe the appendicular region
Sternal, axillary, mammary
Back of head; otic, ocipital
Back of head
Between anus and external genitalia
Arch of foot
What directional terms only apply to the limbs?
Proximal and distal
What directional terms are used in place of superior/inferior?
The same side
What other directional term can be used for anterior/posterior?
What other directional terms can be used for superficial/deep?
What is another term for frontal plane?
Describe a sagittal plane
Vertical, divides body to left and right parts
Describe a parasagittal plane
Offset from midline
Describe a transverse plane
Runs horizontally, divides body into superior and inferior parts
What plane allows you to see all four chambers of the heart?
What does oblique mean?
At an angle
Name the 6 anatomical features of vertebrates
Tube within a tube, bilateral symmetry, dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord and vertebrae, segmentation, pharyngeal pouches
What are the pharyngeal pouches on humans?
Develop into pharynx and middle ear
What is included in the dorsal body cavity?
Cranial and vertebral
What is included in the ventral body cavity?
Thoracic cavity and mediastinum, abdominopelvic cavity
Describe the parts of the thoracic cavity
Two lateral parts each containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity
Describe the mediastinum
Contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac
Describe the parts of the abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity contains the liver, stomach, kidneys and the pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum
Describe the serous cavities
Slitlike space lined by a serous membrane
What is the function of serous fluid?
To fill space and reduce friction
Outer wall of the cavity
Covers the visceral organs
Describe the 9 abdominal regions
Right/left hypochondriac regions, epigastric region, right/left lumbar region, umbilical region, right/left iliac region, hypogastric region
Describe light microscopy
Illuminates tissue with a beam of light, uses staining (H&E), lower magnification
Describe electron microscopy
Uses beams of electrons, see more details, can artificially color the image
Describe scanning electron microscopy
Gives 3D structure through electrons bouncing off of the image
Transmission electron microscopy
Gives internal view through a heavy metal salt stain, deflects electrons in the beam to different extents
What are artifacts?
Minor distortions of preserved tissues
What are the positives and negatives of X-Ray?
Cheap, good with bones and various densities, portable, noninvasive; not good for tissues, hard to visualize overlapping structures, exposed to ionizing radiation
Computed tomography positives and negatives
3D images, sharp, better quality than X-Ray; exposed to radiation, requires an expert to read, not portable, very expensive
What does a CT scan do?
Takes successive X rays around a person's full circumference
Describe an angiography
Contrast medium highlights vessel structure, used to identify sources of internal bleeding, aneurisms, and atherosclerosis
What is digital subtraction angiography?
Images taken before and after contrasts to identify blockages of arteries
Describe a positron emission tomography
Forms images by detecting radioactive isotopes injected into the body, indicates the level of activity and function of blood flow
What are the positives/negatives of PET scans?
See real time metabolic activity, invasive, given radioactive glucose, expensive
Body is proper with pulses of high frequency sound waves that echo off of tissues, determines the age of a developing fetus, visualizes the gallbladder, detects atherosclerosis
What are the positives and negatives of sonography?
Inexpensive, portable, no radiation, need an expert to read, not a sharp image, cannot use for lungs or bones
What was the previous acronym for MRI?
Describe a magnetic resonance imager
Produces high quality images of soft tissues by aligning and disarranging hydrogen atoms. Able to distinguish body tissues and can be assembled into 3D images
Describe a functional MRI
Reveals the amount of oxygenated blood flowing to specific body regions and can show metabolic activity