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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (120):
1

Define Anatomy

The study of the structure of the human body

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Define morphology

The science of form

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Define physiology

The study of body function

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Define Functional Anatomy

How the structure is designed to meet the functional needs of the body

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Name 3 main sub disciplines of anatomy

Gross, Surface, Microscopic

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Define Gross Anatomy

What you can see with the naked eye

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Define regional anatomy

Subtopic of gross; one region of the body and you look at all systems of that area

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Define Systemic anatomy

Subtopic of gross; identify each system individually

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Define Surface Anatomy

Allows you to locate where internal structures are

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Define Microscopic Anatomy

Uses microscopes to see tissues and cells, helpful because most disease occurs at this level

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Define Developmental Anatomy

All changes in the body from birth to death

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Define Embryology

How organs for and change over time before birth

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Define pathological anatomy

Changes that occur structurally during the process of disease

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Define radiographic anatomy

Study internal structures via use of imaging techniques

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Define Functional morphology

How well do the structures work and how does disease change their efficiency and ability to do the job they are supposed to do

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Describe the purpose of anatomical terminology

Provides a standard nomenclature worldwide

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Describe the hierarchy of structural organization

Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level

18

Describe the integumentary system

Skin, hair, nails; forms external body covering, protects internal organs from injury from the environment, helps to regulate body temperature, synthesizes vitamin D, site of cutaneous receptors

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Describe the Skeletal System

Internal, protects and supports organs, provides a frameworks for muscles, blood cells are formed within the bones, store minerals

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Describe the muscular system

Composed of skeletal muscle, allows manipulation of environment, provides expressions, locomotion, maintains posture, produces heat

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Describe the nervous system

Regulatory system that is fast acting and responds to internal and external changes. Has short lived responses using neurotransmitters

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Describe the endocrine system

Regulatory system with glands that secrete regulating hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use. Has a longer lived response and slower in response time

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Describe the cardiovascular system

Blood vessels transport blood carrying oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes.

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What are the 3 components of the cardiovascular system?

Heart, blood, interconnected vessels

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Describe the lymphatic system

Helps with immunity, picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris in the system, houses white blood cells, attacks foreign substances in the body

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What is the function of lymph nodes?

They filter fluids

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Describe the respiratory system

Keeps blood supplied with oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, gas exchanges occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs

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Describe the digestive system

Takes in nutrients, breaks down food into absorbable units, indigestible food is eliminated as feces

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Describe the urinary system

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes, regulates water, electrolyte, and acid base balance, eliminates breakdown products in urine

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Describe the reproductive systems

Function is to produce offspring, testes, ovaries, mammary glands

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Describe the axial region

Axis of the body; head, neck, trunk

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Describe the appendicular region

Appendages (Legs/Arms)

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Cephalic

Head

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Frontal

Forehead

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Orbital

Eyes

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Nasal

Nose

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Oral

mouth

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Mental

Chin

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Cervical

Neck

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Thoracic

Sternal, axillary, mammary

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Sternal

Sternum

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Axillary

Armpit

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Mammary

Nipple

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Umbilical

Belly Button

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Inguinal

Groin

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Pubic

Genital

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Acromial

Shoulder

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Brachial

Upper Arm

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Antecubital

Elbow; anterior

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Antebrachial

Forearm

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Carpal

Wrist

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Manus

Hand

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Pollex

Thumb

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Palmar

Palm

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Digital

Fingers

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Coxal

hip

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Femoral

Thigh

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Patellar

Knee

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Crural

Calf; anterior

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Fibular/peroneal

Entire calf

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Pedal

Foot

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Tarsal

Ankle

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Metatarsa

mid-foot

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Digital

Toes

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Hallux

Big toe

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Cephalic

Back of head; otic, ocipital

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Otic

Ear

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Ocipital

Back of head

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Olecranal

Elbow; posterior

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Scapular

Scaps

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Lumbar

Lower back

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Sacral

Sacrum

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Gluteal

Butt

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Perineal

Between anus and external genitalia

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Popliteal

Knee; posterior

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Sural

Calf; posterior

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Calcaneal

Heel

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Plantar

Arch of foot

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What directional terms only apply to the limbs?

Proximal and distal

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What directional terms are used in place of superior/inferior?

Cranial/caudal

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The same side

Ipsilateral

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Opposing sides

contralateral

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What other directional term can be used for anterior/posterior?

Ventral/dorsal

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What other directional terms can be used for superficial/deep?

External/internal

85

What is another term for frontal plane?

Coronal

86

Describe a sagittal plane

Vertical, divides body to left and right parts

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Describe a parasagittal plane

Offset from midline

88

Describe a transverse plane

Runs horizontally, divides body into superior and inferior parts

89

What plane allows you to see all four chambers of the heart?

Frontal/coronal plane

90

What does oblique mean?

At an angle

91

Name the 6 anatomical features of vertebrates

Tube within a tube, bilateral symmetry, dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord and vertebrae, segmentation, pharyngeal pouches

92

What are the pharyngeal pouches on humans?

Develop into pharynx and middle ear

93

What is included in the dorsal body cavity?

Cranial and vertebral

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What is included in the ventral body cavity?

Thoracic cavity and mediastinum, abdominopelvic cavity

95

Describe the parts of the thoracic cavity

Two lateral parts each containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity

96

Describe the mediastinum

Contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac

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Describe the parts of the abdominopelvic cavity

Abdominal cavity contains the liver, stomach, kidneys and the pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum

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Describe the serous cavities

Slitlike space lined by a serous membrane

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What is the function of serous fluid?

To fill space and reduce friction

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Parietal serosa

Outer wall of the cavity

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Visceral serosa

Covers the visceral organs

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Describe the 9 abdominal regions

Right/left hypochondriac regions, epigastric region, right/left lumbar region, umbilical region, right/left iliac region, hypogastric region

103

Describe light microscopy

Illuminates tissue with a beam of light, uses staining (H&E), lower magnification

104

Describe electron microscopy

Uses beams of electrons, see more details, can artificially color the image

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Describe scanning electron microscopy

Gives 3D structure through electrons bouncing off of the image

106

Transmission electron microscopy

Gives internal view through a heavy metal salt stain, deflects electrons in the beam to different extents

107

What are artifacts?

Minor distortions of preserved tissues

108

What are the positives and negatives of X-Ray?

Cheap, good with bones and various densities, portable, noninvasive; not good for tissues, hard to visualize overlapping structures, exposed to ionizing radiation

109

Computed tomography positives and negatives

3D images, sharp, better quality than X-Ray; exposed to radiation, requires an expert to read, not portable, very expensive

110

What does a CT scan do?

Takes successive X rays around a person's full circumference

111

Describe an angiography

Contrast medium highlights vessel structure, used to identify sources of internal bleeding, aneurisms, and atherosclerosis

112

What is digital subtraction angiography?

Images taken before and after contrasts to identify blockages of arteries

113

Describe a positron emission tomography

Forms images by detecting radioactive isotopes injected into the body, indicates the level of activity and function of blood flow

114

What are the positives/negatives of PET scans?

See real time metabolic activity, invasive, given radioactive glucose, expensive

115

Describe sonography

Body is proper with pulses of high frequency sound waves that echo off of tissues, determines the age of a developing fetus, visualizes the gallbladder, detects atherosclerosis

116

What are the positives and negatives of sonography?

Inexpensive, portable, no radiation, need an expert to read, not a sharp image, cannot use for lungs or bones

117

What was the previous acronym for MRI?

NMR

118

Describe a magnetic resonance imager

Produces high quality images of soft tissues by aligning and disarranging hydrogen atoms. Able to distinguish body tissues and can be assembled into 3D images

119

Describe a functional MRI

Reveals the amount of oxygenated blood flowing to specific body regions and can show metabolic activity

120

What are the positives and negatives of MRI?

Must be still for a long amount of time, not good for use of the GI tract, follow in real time