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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (75):
1

Hydrocarbon accumulations in geological traps can be classified as...

Reservoir

2

Role of this engineer is to maximize oil and gas production in a cost-effective manner

Production Engineer

3

Reservoir, Well, Flow-line, Separators, Pumps, and Transportation pipelines

Complete Oil/Gas Production System

4

Supplies wellbore with crude oil or gas

Reservoir

5

Provides a path for the production fluid to flow from bottom hole to surface and offers a means to control the fluid production rate

Well

6

Leads the produced fluid to separators

Flowline

7

Remove gas and water from the crude oil

Separators

8

Used to transport oil and gas through pipelines to sale points

Pumps and Compressors

9

An area that consists of one or more reservoirs all related to the same structural feature

Field

10

Contains one or more reservoirs in isolated structures

Pool

11

An oil is at a pressure above its bubble-point pressure. It can dissolve more gas at the given temperature.

Undersaturated Oil

12

An oil that is at its bubble point pressure. It can dissolve no more gas at the given temperature.

Saturated Oil

13

prevails in an undersaturated oil reservoir.

Single (liquid) Phase flow

14

Exists in a saturated oil reservoir

Two-phase (liquid oil and free gas)

15

GOR

Gas-Oil-Ratio

16

____ Wells producing GOR greater than 100,000 SCF/STB

Gas Wells

17

____ Wells that are producing GOR less than 100,000 SCF/STB but greater than 5,000 SCF/STB

Condensate Wells

18

___ Reservoirs can be classified on the basis of boundary type
- Water- Drive Reservoir
- Gas- Cap Reservoir
- Dissolved- gas drive reservoir

Oil

19

In ___ reservoirs, the oil zone is connected by a continuous path to the surface groundwater system.

Water-Drive Reservoir

20

Surface Groundwater System

Aquifer

21

The most preferable type of reservoir compared to bottom-water drive because the reservoir pressure can remain at its initial value above bubble-point pressure so that single-phase liquid flow exists in the reservoir for maximum well-productivity.

Edge-Water Drive Reservoir

22

___ flow condition can prevail in an edge-water drive reservoir for a long time before water breakthrough into the well.

Steady-State Flow

23

____ Reservoir is less favorable because of water-coning problems that can affect oil production economics due to water treatment and disposal issues.

Botton-Water Drive Reservoir

24

___ Reservoir, the drive mechanism where the gas in the reservoir has come out of the solution and rises to the top of the reservoir to form a gas cap. The oil below the gas cap can be produced. If the __ is taken out of the reservoir early in the production process, the reservoir pressure will decrease rapidly.

Gas-Cap Drive Reservoir

25

A type of reservoir that has a fixed oil volume surrounded by no-flow boundaries (faults or pinch-outs). It is the drive mechanism where the reservoir gas is held in solution in the oil (and water). The reservoir gas is actually in a liquid form in a dissolved solution with the liquids at atmospheric conditions from the reservoir. Compared to the Water and gas drive reservoirs, expansion of solution (dissolved gas) in the oil provides a weak driving mechanism in a volumetric reservoir.

Dissolved-Gas Drive Reservoir/ Solution-gas Drive Reservoir/ Volumetric Reservoir

26

In Volumetric Reservoir, the regions where the oil pressure drops to below the bubble-point pressure, gas escapes from the oil and oil-gas two-phase flow exists. In order to improve oil recovery in the solution-gas reservoir...

Early pressure maintenance is usually preferred.

27

Most wells produce oil through ___, because it provides good sealing performance and allows the use of gas expansion to lift oil.

Tubing Strings

28

Steel Grades of tubing are designated H-40, J-55, C-75, L-80, N-80, C-90, P-105. The digits represent...

Tubing.
Digits represent the minimum yield strength in 1,000 psi.

29

___ is defined as the surface equipment set below the master valve.

Well-head

30

___ is threaded onto the surface casing

Lowermost casing head

31

mechanical assembly used for hanging a casing string. Has a bowl that supports the casing hanger.

Casing Head

32

___ is threaded onto the top of the production casing or uses friction grips to hold the casing.

Casing Hanger

33

As in the case of production tubing, the ___ is landed in tension so that the casing hanger actually supports the production casing down to the freeze point.

Production Casing

34

Most flowing wells are produced through a string of tubing run inside the ___.

Production Casing String

35

At the surface, the tubing is supported by the ____, is used for hanging tubing string on the production casing head. It supports the tubing string at the surface (this tubing is landed on the tubing head so that it is in tension all the way down to the packer).

Tubing Head

36

Equipment at the top of the producing wellhead is called...used to control flow. It is installed above the tubing head. __ may have one flow outlet or two flow outlets.

Christmas Tree

37

A(n) ___ is used to join the Christmas Tree and the Tubing Head.

Adaptor

38

One flow outlet on a Christmas Tree.

Tee

39

Two flow outlet on a Christmas Tree

Cross

40

This is installed below a Tee or a Cross

Master Valve

41

___ consists of a main valve, wing valves, and a needle valve. Used for closing the well when needed.

Christmas Tree.

42

On top of a Christmas Tree, there is a ___ that indicates the ___ in the tubing.

Pressure gauge, Pressure in the tubing

43

Piece of equipment used to control the flow rate

Surface Choke

44

In most flowing wells, the oil production rate is altered by adjusting the...which causes back-pressure in the line.

Choke Size

45

This causes back-pressure

Chokes

46

____ increases the bottom hole flowing pressure.

Back-Pressure

47

Increasing the bottom-hole flowing pressure decreases the pressure drop from the reservoir to the ___.

Wellbore (Pressure drawdown)

48

When chokes are installed in the lower section of tubing strings... it ___ well head pressure and ___ oil production rate as a result of gas expansion in the tubing string.

Decreases well head pressure and enhances oil production rate

49

What is the major disadvantage of installing a down-hole choke?

Too expensive

50

What must be done before opening the well?

Check all the surface equipment such as safety valves, fittings, etc.

51

T/F The burner of a line heater must be lit before the well is opened. This is necessary because the pressure drop across a choke cools the fluid and may cause gas hydrates or paraffin to deposit out.

True

52

T/F The upsteam heating helps melt any solids that may be present in the producing fluid. The downstream heating prevents hydrates and paraffins from forming at the choke

True

53

T/F It is not necessary for surface vessels to be open and clear before the well is allowed to flow

False

54

T/F To open the well, be sure that all valves that are in the master valve and downstream valves are closed.

True

55

T/F The procedure for "Shutting-in" a well is the same as the procedure for opening a well.

False, it is opposite.

56

T/F In shutting-in the well, the master valve is closed last.

True

57

T/F Valves are closed quickly.

True, Valves need to avoid wearing/ erosion. At least two valves must be closed.

58

T/F There are two types of separators.

False, There are three types of separators; horizontal, vertical, spherical.

59

___ are categorized into two categories. Single and double tube.

Horizontal Separator

60

__ separators are usually the first choice because of their low costs.

Horizontal Separator

61

__ separators are almost widely used for high-GOR well streams, foaming well streams, or liquid-from-liquid separation since they have much greater gas-liquid interface because of a large, long, baffled gas-separation section. They are easier to skid-mount and service and require less piping for field connections.

Horizontal Separator

62

Individual separators can be stacked easily into stage separation assemblies to minimize space requirements. Gas flows ___, while liquid droplets fall towards the liquid surface.

Horizontal Separator

63

__ separators are often used to treat low to intermediate GOR well streams and streams with relatively large slugs of liquid. They handle greater slugs of liquid without carryover to the gas outlet, and the action of the liquid-level control is not as critical. They occupy less floor space, which is important for facility sites like offshore platforms.

Vertical Separators

64

___ separators offer an inexpensive and compact means of separation arrangement. These types of separators have very limited surge space and liquid-settling section. The placement and action of the liquid-level control in this type of separator is more critical.

Spherical Separators

65

____ are used to provide mechanical energy required for the transportation.

Reciprocating piston pumps

66

___ is used for duplex (two piston pumps)

Double-Action Stroke

67

___ is used for umps with three pistons or greater (triplex pump).

Single-action stroke

68

___ are used for providing gas pressure required to transport gas with pipelines and to lift oil in gas-lift operations.

Compressors

69

Two Types of of Gas Compressors

Reciprocating and Rotary Compressors

70

___ are most commonly used in the natural gas industry built for practically all pressure and volumetric capabilities. They have more moving parts and lower mechanical efficiencies. Each cylinder assembly of a ___ compressor consists of a pison, cylinder, cylinder head, suction and discharge valves, and other parts necessary to convert rotary motion to reciprocation motion.

Reciprocating Compressors

71

____ compressors are divided into two classes: the centrifugal compressor and rotary blower.

Rotary Compressor

72

____ compressor consists of a housing with flow passages, a rotating shaft on which the impeller is mounted, bearings, and seals to prevent gas from escaping along the shaft.

Centrifugal Compressor

73

___ compressor have few moving parts because only the impeller and shaft rotate thus its efficiency is high and lubrication oil consumption and maintenance costs are low. Cooling water is normally unnecessary because of lower compression ratio and less friction loss.

Centrifugal Compressor

74

Compression rates of centrifugal compressors are ___ because of the absence of positive displacement.

Lower

75

T/F Centrifugal compressors compress gas using centrifugal force.

True, Work is done on the gas by an impeller. Gas is then discharged at a high velocity into a diffuser where the velocity is reduced and its kinetic energy is converted to static pressure.