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Flashcards in chapter 1 Deck (11):
1

agreement realities

assertions that have logical and empirical support

epistemology; the science of knowing

ontology; what constitutes reality

methodology; the science of finding out

2

agreement reality in tradition and authority

tradition; knowledge based on shared cultural understandings

authority; knowledge based on the status of the discoverer

3

errors and solutions

inaccurate observations
(use accurate measurement devices)

overgeneralization
(use representative samples)

replication
selective observations
(don't look for deviant cases)

illogical reasoning
(use logic explicitly)

4

theory

social theory tells us what something is (positive)
what it should be (normative)

a systematic explanation for an observation of a certain aspect of our life

5

social regularities

finding patterns of regularity in everyday life

documenting the obvious is imp but its wrong most of the time, or misinterpreted

expectations to a regularity does not make it less important

6

focus of social science

why do masses of people behave in similar patterns even though the individuals are changing over time

7

variables vs attributes

v; logical groupings

a; characteristic

8

types of research

exploratory
(investigate, conclusions are suggestive rather than definitive)

descriptive (describing the state of social affairs)

explanatory (provides reasons for phenomena in the form of casual relationships)

9

dialects

idiographic;
specific... exhaust the unique causes of a particular event

nomothetic;
general... seek a few casual factors that impact a class of conditions

induction; start with info to create a theory

deduction; test a theory

10

dialects cont

determinism (environment) vs agency (individuals free will)

11

pure vs applied research

pure; gaining knowledge just for the sake of it

applied; putting research into practice