Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (29):
What are 3 developmental domains?
Physical (growth of body and its organs, aging); Cognitive (changes in mental processing, learning); Psychosocial (changes in emotions, motives, interpersonal skills and societal roles)
What are the characteristics of emerging adulthood?
Explore their identities, lead unstable lives (job changes, new relationships), self-focused on their own needs, feeling on in-between child and adult, belief that they have unlimited possibilities.
What is age grade?
A socially defined age group in society.
Give 2 examples of age grade
Old age in our society is 65+. Other societies may have honorary status given to someone age 50 and older. In East Africa, males go through different titles as they age - youth, jr. warrior, sr. warrior, jr. elders, etc.
What is nature in terms of development?
The biological influences including heridity, maturation processes, genes and biological predispositions. It is the biological unfolding of the individual based upon their genes.
What is nurture in terms of development?
Nurture are changes in response to the environment. Learning is determined by the environment and the cultural influences.
What is reciprocal determinism?
This is the position taken by most development scientists today. We affect our environment as much as our environment affects us. There is a never ending collaboration between individual and environment.
What are the goals driving the study of life-span development? Describe.
Describing - characterizing the functioning of humans of different ages.
Prediction - determining a causal relationship.
Explanation - explaining why the prediction will work or not work.
Optimization - how can development be enhanced based on what we know now?
List Baltes 7 key assumptions of the lifespan perspective.
1. development is a lifelong process
2. development is multidirectional
3. development involves both gains and losses
4. development is characterized by lifelong plasticity
5. development is shaped by its historical cultural context
6. development is multiply influenced - both nurture and nature
7. development must be studied by multiple disciplines
Describe the scientific method in one sentence.
Theories generate hypothesis which are then tested by observation and thus determine which theories should be kept and which should not be kept.
What are 3 characteristics of a good theory?
1. Internally consistent
2. Falsifiable (can be proved wrong)
3. Supported by data
What are 3 critical features of true experiments?
1. Random assignment
2. Manipulation of the independent variable
3. Experimental control
What is the basic question for correlational designs?
Are 2 or more variables related in any systematic way?
What kind of conclusion can be drawn from research utilizing experimental method that cannot be drawn from correlational method research?
In experiments, you can draw firm cause and effect relationships. In correlational methods you cannot establish a causal relationship.
Describe two rival interpretations that are possible for most correlational studies.
1. Directionality problems - direction of the cause-effect relationship could be opposite of what the researcher thinks.
2. Third variable problem - association between 2 variables may be caused by a third variable.
Describe cross-sectional design and list strengths and weaknesses.
Performances of people of different age groups or cohorts are compared.
Strengths - quick and easy; provides information about age differences.
Weaknesses - a person is observed at only one point in their life; does not tell how people change as they age
Describe longitudinal design and list strengths and weaknesses.
One cohort of individuals is assessed repeatedly over time.
Strengths - can tell if experiences early in life can predict future behavior; provides info on age changes not differences.
Weaknesses - time of measurement effects are tangled with age effects; historical effects at beginning of study; costly and time-consuming; participants may drop out of study.
Describe sequential design and list strengths and weaknesses.
Combines longitudinal and cross sectional design.
Strength - untangles the age, cohort and time of measurement effects
Weakness - complex and expensive
What are characteristics of ethical study?
Benefits of the research (the knowledge gains) outweigh the potential risk to particpants. Other less risky procedures are not available.
List and explain 4 major ethical obligations of investigators to their research participants.
Protection from harm
Changes and continuities in the individual occuring womb to tomb.
We affect our environment as much as it affects us.
Evidence based practice
Grounding what professionals do in research and ensuring that treatments provided have been demonstrated to be effective.
Method and attitude; investigators allow data to determine thinking
A set of concepts and propositions intended to describe/explain certain phenomena
Results of multiple studies synthesized to produce overall conclusions
Belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to others.
G Stanley Hall
Often cited as the founder of developmental psychology