Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Pediatric Advanced Life Support > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

Apnea

The cessation of breathing for more than 20 seconds with or without cyanosis, decreased muscle tone, or bradycardia

2

Bradypnea

A slower than normal rate of breathing for the patient’s age

3

Capnograph

A device that provides both a numeric reading and a waveform of carbon dioxide concentrations in exhaled gases

4

Capnography

The process of continuously analyzing and recording carbon dioxide concentrations in expired air

5

Capnometer

A device that measures the concentration of carbon dioxide at the airway opening at the end of exhalation

6

Capnometry

A numeric reading of exhaled CO2 concentrations without a con- tinuous waveform

7

Crackles

Abnormal breath sounds produced as air passes through airways containing fluid or moisture (formerly called rales)

8

Fontanels

Membranous spaces formed where cranial bones intersect

9

Grunting

A short, low-pitched sound heard as the patient exhales against a partially closed glottis; it is a compensatory mechanism to help maintain the patency of the alveoli and prolong the period of gas exchange

10

Gurgling

A bubbling sound that occurs when blood or secretions are present in the upper airway

11

Head bobbing

An indicator of increased work of breathing in infants; the head falls forward with exhalation and comes up with expansion of the chest on inhalation

12

Minute volume

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute, determined by multiplying the tidal volume by the ventilatory rate

13

Nasal flaring

Widening of the nostrils on inhalation; an attempt to increase the size of the nasal passages for air to enter during inhalation

14

Pediatric assessment triangle (PAT)

A rapid, systematic approach to forming a general impression of the ill or injured child that focuses on three main areas:

(1) appearance,

(2) work of breathing,

and (3) circulation to the skin.

15

PQRST

An acronym used when evaluating patients in pain:

Precipitating or provoking factors,
Quality of pain,
Region and radiation of pain,
Severity,
and Time of pain onset

16

Primary assessment

A hands-on assessment that is performed to rapidly find and treat life-threatening conditions by evaluating the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems; also called a primary survey, initial assess- ment, or ABCDE assessment

17

Pulse oximetry

A noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen

18

Purpura

Red-purple nonblanchable discolorations greater than 0.5 cm in diameter; large purpura are called ecchymoses

19

Respiratory distress

A clinical condition characterized by increased work of breathing and a rate of breathing outside the normal range for the patient’s age

20

Respiratory failure

A clinical condition in which there is inadequate oxygenation, ventilation, or both to meet the metabolic demands of body tissues

21

Retractions

Sinking in of the soft tissues above the sternum or clavicle, or between or below the ribs during inhalation

22

SAMPLE

Acronym used when obtaining a patient history;

Signs and symptoms (as they relate to the chief complaint),
Allergies,
Medications,
Past medical history,
Last oral intake,
and Events surrounding the illness or injury

23

Seesaw breathing

An ineffective breathing pattern in which the abdominal muscles move outward during inhalation while the chest moves inward; a sign of impending respiratory failure

24

Sniffing position

A position in which the patient sits upright and leans forward with the chin slightly raised, thereby aligning the axes of the mouth, pharynx, and trachea to open the airway and increase airflow

25

Snoring

Noisy, low-pitched sounds usually caused by partial obstruction of the upper airway by the tongue

26

Stridor

A harsh, high-pitched sound heard on inhalation that is associated with inflammation or swelling of the upper airway often described as a high-pitched “seal bark” sound; caused by disorders such as croup, epiglottitis, the presence of a foreign body, or an inhalation injury

27

Tachypnea

A rate of breathing that is more rapid than normal for the patient’s age

28

TICLS

A mnemonic developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics that is used to recall the areas to be assessed related to a child’s overall appearance;

Tone,
Interactivity,
Consolability,
Look or gaze,
and Speech or cry

29

Tidal volume

The volume of air moved into or out of the lungs during a normal breath

30

Tripod position

A position in which the patient attempts to maintain an open airway by sitting upright and leaning forward supported by his or her arms with the neck slightly extended, chin projected, and mouth open